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Song Yang and Eric A. Smith

1. Introduction It is well established that the diabatic heating distribution in both space and time represents an important thermal forcing mechanism in regard to monsoon circulations, tropical and midlatitude circulations, and the general circulation of the atmosphere. A number of studies (e.g., Puri 1987 ; Hack et al. 1989 ; Hack and Schubert 1990 ) have indicated that atmospheric circulations are sensitive to the detailed structure of the vertical heating profile. Both planetary

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Conrad L. Ziegler

Hobbs 1984 ; Ziegler 1985 , 1988 ; Marecal et al. 1993 ). The present study develops a new buoyancy retrieval method, termed diabatic Lagrangian analysis (DLA), which avoids several limitations of conventional buoyancy retrievals (described below) while retaining both an accurate advection principle and explicit diabatic forcing proceeding from radar-inferred precipitation and microphysical processes. The newly developed DLA method extends the Lagrangian analysis technique of Ziegler et al

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Ethan L. Nelson, Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, Stephen M. Saleeby, Wesley Berg, Stephen R. Herbener, and Susan C. van den Heever

of shallow precipitation are often underrepresented in conventional precipitation and latent heating datasets ( Haynes and Stephens 2007 ; Ellis et al. 2009 ; Berg et al. 2010 ; Hagos et al. 2010 ; Jiang et al. 2009 ; Zhang et al. 2010 ; Lebsock and L’Ecuyer 2011 ). Efforts to quantitatively estimate latent heating from observations mostly stem from Reed and Recker (1971) and Yanai et al. (1973) , who used heat and moisture budgets to calculate domain fluxes of diabatic heating from a

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Scott W. Powell, Robert A. Houze, Jr., and Stella R. Brodzik

stratiform categories if the associated profile of vertical motion or diabatic heating were known, our results highlight the fact that the use of the reflectivity field alone requires that a large fraction of the total precipitation on convectively active days cannot be classified into either rain-type category. Fig . 8. Stacked bar chart showing the cumulative daily-averaged precipitation amounts (mm) during DYNAMO classified as convective (purple), stratiform (red), uncertain (green), isolated

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Christopher R. Williams

1986 to early 1995 is shown in Fig. 1 . The annual and interannual variability of the zonal wind can be seen in Fig. 1 . The normalized monthly surface pressure difference between Tahiti and Darwin is the SOI and is used to indicate the strength of the Walker circulation and the phase of the El Niño cycle. PCA is used to relate the observed zonal winds with the SOI that associates the zonal wind with the diabatic heating from tropical convection. a. Annual variability of zonal wind A composite

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Warner L. Ecklund, Christopher R. Williams, Paul E. Johnston, and Kenneth S. Gage

1. Introduction It is widely recognized that one of the greatest challenges in the numerical simulation of the atmosphere is the realistic simulation of the hydrological cycle. The simulation of clouds and precipitation in numerical models is still rudimentary. Clouds of all kinds have radiative impacts that are important for the heat budget of the atmosphere, and precipitation in cloud systems is the source of most diabatic heating that drives the Hadley and Walker circulations. Since

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L. A. Sromovsky, J. R. Anderson, F. A. Best, J. P. Boyle, C. A. Sisko, and V. E. Suomi

flux plate measurements. The flux plate used during these tests had an aluminized Mylar film bonded on both sides of the standard flux plate to reflect solar radiation and thus minimize the solar heating of the flux plate. Given the small size of Sparkling Lake, the use of bulk aerodynamic formulas are certainly questionable. However, according to Rao et al. (1974) , for large fetch x, the equilibrium layer height h (the level at which the shear stress adjustment is at 90%) is approximately x

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Shelley L. Knuth and John J. Cassano

proportional to the time rate of change of temperature and is the adiabatic term, which are both estimated from the UAV observations. It is assumed that changes in Q s , the diabatic heating term (J kg −1 s −1 ), are only due to surface fluxes from the polynya into the air parcel. All other diabatic processes, such as entrainment, subsidence, and radiation, are assumed to be negligible as part of this study. While neglecting these processes may impact the results, the necessary observations to quantify

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Paul J. Martin

and MLD during MILE: Figure I shows a genealwarming of the SST. betve~n 19,August and 8 Septem,ber, a diurnal fluctuation of SST and MLD due toditirnal solar heating, :~nd a' significaht cooling anddeepening Of the mixed' layeri0n .22-23 'August lhatwas caused by a storm:.' - ~' ' " '4. ,calculation of a thermal Climatology at Phpa - A 'monthly climatology Of the Upper-ocean tgmPerature field at Papa was. calculated by averaging the1960:-68 BT pro~files -o? each, month

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T. Narayana Rao, N. V. P. Kirankumar, B. Radhakrishna, D. Narayana Rao, and K. Nakamura

increases to 4.1%. This is not really surprising, given that the core of the convection and the maximum diabatic heating mostly lies above that height. Added to that, the size (therefore, the fall velocity) of the hydrometeors is also small in those heights. 7. Summary and conclusions Continuous measurements of the lower atmospheric wind profiler have been used to develop an automated classification scheme to distinguish different types of tropical precipitation. The new algorithm deviates in approach

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