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Jian Ling and Chidong Zhang

1. Introduction Diabatic heating in the atmosphere is a combined consequence of radiative fluxes, phase changes of water substance, and turbulence flux of sensible heat from the earth’s surface. In the tropics, it is the major driving force of the atmospheric circulation. Through that, it acts as a unique cross-scale link between cloud microphysics and the global energy and water cycles. The importance of the vertical structure of diabatic heating cannot be overstated. The tropical atmospheric

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Samson Hagos, Chidong Zhang, Wei-Kuo Tao, Steve Lang, Yukari N. Takayabu, Shoichi Shige, Masaki Katsumata, Bill Olson, and Tristan L’Ecuyer

1. Introduction To the first order, the atmospheric general circulation redistributes energy and balances the horizontal and vertical gradients of diabatic heating. Since the earth’s atmosphere is primarily heated from the surface, convective processes are required to maintain the troposphere close to neutral stratification. On the large scale, the heating gradient between the tropics and extratropics is balanced by the poleward transport of the heat of the general circulation. However, the

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Abheera Hazra and V. Krishnamurthy

India during the active (break) phase. Additionally, a regional Walker circulation propagates eastward over the equatorial Indian Ocean. The space–time structures of precipitation, convection, and circulation in the leading MISO are somewhat better understood. In the tropics, the diabatic heating is the main source of energy that drives the atmospheric circulation, which in turn influences the diabatic heating through atmospheric instabilities. The tropical region receives two-thirds of the global

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Joy Romanski and William B. Rossow

generation of A e ( G e ) ( Suomi and Shen 1963 ; Hansen and Nagle 1984 ). Neither the sign nor magnitude of G e is well determined because of insufficient space–time resolution of the conventional weather observations [ Oort and Peixoto (1983) , for instance, use monthly mean quantities]. Thus, G is not well quantified. Moreover, the residual calculation does not allow one to determine the separate contributions to G by the different diabatic heating processes, so these contributions have not

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Youkyoung Jang and David M. Straus

as a boundary forcing ( Charney and Shukla 1981 ) in a full atmosphere general circulation model (GCM; Wang et al. 2000 ; Lau and Nath 2000 ; Ju and Slingo 1995 ). Ashok et al. (2004) , Kucharski et al. (2007) , and Su et al. (2001) distinguished the atmosphere GCM response to the SST pattern in the 1997 event from the response to SST patterns for past El Niños, which were associated with a dry monsoon. However, in a full atmospheric GCM, the diabatic heating in the tropics may not respond

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Richard J. Greatbatch and Thomas Jung

, the baroclinic zone on which the storm track depends is maintained by the dynamical response of the atmosphere to the diabatic heating that results from the storm track itself. Hoskins and Valdes’ work raises a question as to whether the same mechanism operates to self-maintain the modes of low-frequency variability within the atmospheric circulation that are related to shifts in the positions of the storm tracks. Over the Euro–Atlantic sector, the most important pattern of low

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Shaocheng Xie, Timothy Hume, Christian Jakob, Stephen A. Klein, Renata B. McCoy, and Minghua Zhang

McBride 1989 ; Lin and Johnson 1996a , b ; Schumacher et al. 2007 ). Retrieval of latent heating profiles from satellite measurements is also a major research topic of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) ( Tao et al. 2006 , 2007 ). Latent heating is the dominant component of total diabatic heating in the tropics during convective periods. The total diabatic heating and drying can be estimated as the residuals of heat and moisture

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Ji Nie and Bowen Fan

. However, most previous studies of QG ω analyses only focus on the dynamically forced vertical motion, those associated with the adiabatically balanced flow. In the EPEs, there is a large amount of diabatic heating due to the water vapor condensation, and the diabatic heating also induces significant large-scale vertical motion ( Horinouchi and Hayashi 2017 ). Recent studies estimated that more than half of the large-scale vertical motion in EPEs is caused by diabatic heating ( Nie et al. 2016

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Steven C. Chan and Sumant Nigam

1. Introduction The earth’s atmosphere is primarily heated from below by the sensible, latent, and radiative (longwave) heat fluxes originating at the land surface. Related flux divergence and water phase change leads to diabatic heating of the atmosphere. Atmospheric circulation arises in response to the horizontal and vertical variations of heating and their influence on temperature and, in turn, modulates diabatic heating itself through impact on the heat fluxes. The diabatic heating

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Hugh S. Baker, Tim Woollings, and Cheikh Mbengue

–like forcings, quantifying and characterizing jet sensitivities is also useful in understanding the response of the jets to natural variability such as the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation ( Sutton and Dong 2012 ) and ENSO ( Lu et al. 2008 ) and in assessing the sensitivity to model biases in the position of diabatic heating ( Hawcroft et al. 2017 ). More generally, heating experiments such as this study can also be used in understanding the role of diabatic heating in modifying the atmospheric mean state

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