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Dimitry Smirnov, Matthew Newman, Michael A. Alexander, Young-Oh Kwon, and Claude Frankignoul

-level diabatic heating anomaly, is a slightly downstream surface cyclonic anomaly. Because of time-mean meridional temperature gradients in the midlatitudes, this circulation balances the SST-induced warming with cold air advection. This results in subsidence (excluding boundary layer Ekman pumping) over the SST anomaly, as column shrinking is required to conserve vorticity and balance the equatorward flow, yielding a baroclinic structure with a downstream upper-level high. This basic picture does not tend

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A. Foussard, G. Lapeyre, and R. Plougonven

(SST eddies ; K). (b) Snapshots of temperature at 700 hPa (contours; K) and specific humidity at 700 hPa (shading; g kg −1 ). (c) 10-m wind speed (m s −1 ) and wind vectors. (d) Temperature at 950 hPa (contours; K), and air–sea sensible heat flux (shading; W m −2 , positive upward). (e) Sea level pressure (contours; hPa) and diabatic heating vertically averaged between 300 and 900 hPa (shading; K day −1 ). (f) Rain rate, averaged over a 24-h interval (mm day −1 ). Figure 3d shows the surface

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Hidetaka Hirata, Ryuichi Kawamura, Masaya Kato, and Taro Shinoda

production in the surrounding regions. Previous studies have pointed out that the development of explosive cyclones is influenced not only by baroclinic instability, but also by diabatic heating processes (e.g., Kuo et al. 1991b ; Reed et al. 1993b ; Yoshida and Asuma 2004 ; Kuwano-Yoshida and Asuma 2008 ; Fu et al. 2014 ). Using numerical simulations, Kuo et al. (1991b) revealed that latent heat release contributed to the intensification of an explosive cyclone over the northwestern Atlantic

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Kotaro Katsube and Masaru Inatsu

end of this century ( Zhang and Li 2014 ). Recently, some researchers have explored whether TCs play an active role in background flow. Kawamura and Ogasawara (2006) and Yamada and Kawamura (2007) suggested that the diabatic heating generated by TCs serves as a Rossby wave source and intensifies the Pacific–Japan pattern ( Nitta 1987 ; Kosaka and Nakamura 2006 ). Recently, Hirata and Kawamura (2014) showed that an anomalous anticyclone induced by a typhoon tends to shift the typhoon itself

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Xiaohui Ma, Ping Chang, R. Saravanan, Raffaele Montuoro, Hisashi Nakamura, Dexing Wu, Xiaopei Lin, and Lixin Wu

to Willison et al. (2013) , at ~20-km resolution, models begin to explicitly resolve the diabatic heating structure during cyclogenesis. Each of the twin ensembles contains 10 members with different initial conditions generated by using the reanalysis data on 1 October of 10 different years (i.e., 2002, 2003, …, 2011) but with identical lateral boundary conditions for the 2007/08 winter. We note that the ensemble size of 10 may not be large by global AGCM standards. However, the use of the

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Atsuhiko Isobe, Shin’ichiro Kako, and Shinsuke Iwasaki

1. Introduction It is well known that dense phytoplankton populations in the euphotic zone increase the attenuation rate of solar radiation penetrating the sea surface, resulting in increased availability of energy in the upper mixed layer ( Jerlov 1968 ; Paulson and Simpson 1977 ). Hence, seawater temperature in the upper mixed layer depends partly on concentrations of chlorophyll through such biological heating (or bio-optical heating; e.g., Lewis et al. 1990 ; Sathyendranath et al. 1991

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Hidetaka Hirata, Ryuichi Kawamura, Masaya Kato, and Taro Shinoda

-Givi et al. 2004 ; Kuwano-Yoshida and Asuma 2008 ). Previous studies indicate that the moisture and sensible heat supply around warm currents is one of the factors responsible for the enhanced latent heating in extratropical cyclones (e.g., Davis and Emanuel 1988 ; Nuss and Kamikawa 1990 ; Kuo et al. 1991a ; Reed et al. 1993 ; Gyakum and Danielson 2000 ; Booth et al. 2012 ; Kuwano-Yoshida and Minobe 2017 ). To clarify how the moisture and sensible heat supply from the warm currents affect the

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Satoru Okajima, Hisashi Nakamura, Kazuaki Nishii, Takafumi Miyasaka, Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, Bunmei Taguchi, Masato Mori, and Yu Kosaka

height, air temperature, horizontal wind and pressure velocity, diabatic heating rates, and surface turbulent heat fluxes are obtained from the new Japanese 55-year Reanalysis of the global atmosphere (JRA-55; Kobayashi et al. 2015 ; Harada et al. 2016 ) for the period 1958–2010 available on a 1.25° × 1.25° grid. In addition, the following two SST datasets are used. One is the climatological-mean SST field for each calendar month derived from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

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Yi-Hui Wang and W. Timothy Liu

-scale signals with greater horizontal spreads and less robustness than the variables discussed previously. The air temperature response beyond the boundary layer implies the direct penetrating effect by diabatic heating associated with ocean current variations. The air temperature response above 500 hPa is displaced to the west of that below 500 hPa, which leads to the opposite vertical response. This spatial pattern and the height of the transition layer near 500 hPa are consistent with that of the

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Akira Kuwano-Yoshida and Shoshiro Minobe

second term is the vertically integrated virtual temperature tendency (ITT), and the third term is the moisture mass budget (EP). The ITT can be expanded as follows: where v is the horizontal velocity vector, ω is the vertical pressure velocity, T is the temperature, c p is the specific heat capacity, Q is the diabatic heating rate, and RES ITT is the residuum due to discretization. The first term on the right-hand side indicates horizontal temperature advection (HADV), the second term

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