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Kwang-Yul Kim, James J. O'Brien, and Albert I. Barcilon

component. There is also a strong asymmetry between the summer hemisphere and the winter hemisphere; the response is stronger in the winter hemisphere. This asymmetry, together with the seasonal asymmetry of the biennial oscillation, makes its responses much stronger in the boreal winter hemisphere than in the boreal summer hemisphere. The precipitation anomaly and the diagnostically analyzed diabatic heating ( Hoskins et al., 1989 ) anomaly patterns associated with the biennial mode are plotted in

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Y. C. Sud, G. K. Walker, V. M. Mehta, and William K-M. Lau

observed structure of the Hadley cell. Figure 6c and Figure 6d show a relatively weaker Ferrell cell in the Southern Hemisphere; both of these simulations (S2 and S3) use an annual mean SST. Since there is large ocean cover over the southern midlatitudes, such an influence of SST on the meridional circulation is an expected consequence. The corresponding zonal mean diabatic heating, which is the sum of radiative and condensation heating fields for JJA ( Figure 7 ), shows how the diabatic heating

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Ana M. B. Nunes and John O. Roads

-range forecast model. Preprints, 10th Conf. on Numerical Weather Prediction , Portland, OR, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 96–98 . Puri , K. and W. Bourke . 1982 . A scheme to retain the Hadley circulation during nonlinear normal mode initialization. Mon. Wea. Rev. 110 : 327 – 335 . Puri , K. and M. J. Miller . 1990 . The use of satellite data in the specification of convective heating for diabatic initialization and moisture adjustment in numerical weather prediction. Mon. Wea. Rev. 118 : 67

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