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Michael L. Kaplan, Ramesh K. Vellore, Phillip J. Marzette, and John M. Lewis

and mesoscale adjustments can facilitate strong leeside vertical motions and cross-mountain moisture fluxes. However, none of these aforementioned studies addressed the finescale perturbations in pressure and moisture on the leeside due to the effect of complex terrain-induced circulations as well as the mesoscale coupling of the mass, momentum, and diabatic heating. We intend to provide a more detailed understanding of the multiscale links among these phenomena. This is carried out by examining

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Christopher G. Marciano and Gary M. Lackmann

atmospheric river events; that is, the strongest moisture flux and LLJ are located immediately adjacent to a lower-tropospheric cyclonic PV maximum ( Lackmann and Gyakum 1999 ; Lackmann 2002 ). The same general structure remains in place between hours 72 and 96 ( Figs. 9b–d ). Cross sections taken through these elongated PV maxima demonstrate that they are the result of condensational heating and that they are isolated from the stratospheric PV reservoir ( Fig. 10 ). The diabatic PV tendency, computed

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Jinwoong Yoo, Joseph A. Santanello Jr., Marshall Shepherd, Sujay Kumar, Patricia Lawston, and Andrew M. Thomas

(e.g., Ohno et al. 2016 ; Munsell et al. 2018 ; Wang and Jiang 2019 ). Since the warm-core anomaly of a TC is achieved mainly by the latent heat release either in the condensation of the water vapor or in the solidification of raindrops (e.g., ice, graupel, or hail) rather than by diabatic heating (e.g., by sensible heat flux), Fig. 11 suggests that the lower Max_dT in the cases of the LHzero, LSHFzero, SMdrytropic, and SMwettropic may be attributable to less moisture or less condensation in

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Xiaodong Chen, L. Ruby Leung, Yang Gao, and Ying Liu

States and many other regions around the world ( Redmond and Koch 1991 ; Dettinger et al. 1998 ). Through their impacts on convection and diabatic heating, SST anomalies in the tropical Pacific Ocean induce Rossby waves that result in the Pacific–North American (PNA) teleconnection ( Barnston and Livezey 1987 ). The PNA pattern influences precipitation and temperature in the western United States on a seasonal-to-interannual time scale. On interannual-to-decadal time scale, SST anomalies associated

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Raju Attada, Hari Prasad Dasari, Ravi Kumar Kunchala, Sabique Langodan, Kondapalli Niranjan Kumar, Omar Knio, and Ibrahim Hoteit

the AP and its different subregions for the period 2001–16 from model simulations with different convection schemes and observations. We further computed and analyzed the apparent heat source (e.g., Yanai et al. 1973 ) to determine the thermodynamical feedbacks to the seasonal mean precipitation and to identify the convective parameterization deficiencies in the model. The apparent heat source (diabatic heating) is computed as the sum of the latent heating associated with phase changes, the

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Michael L. Kaplan, Christopher S. Adaniya, Phillip J. Marzette, K. C. King, S. Jeffrey Underwood, and John M. Lewis

simulated parcels start to develop their strongest upward velocity component. This period represents stronger parcel lifting than in the observations, albeit in rather similar locations and times as a result of diabatic heating rates that are somewhat larger at finer scales than the observations. The parcel ascent occurs ahead of a midlevel secondary (700 hPa) zonal wind maximum. This secondary maximum is a subsynoptic maximum in the LH simulation southeast of the larger-scale or primary 700-hPa wind

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Guoxiong Wu, Yimin Liu, Qiong Zhang, Anmin Duan, Tongmei Wang, Rijin Wan, Xin Liu, Weiping Li, Zaizhi Wang, and Xiaoyun Liang

TIPEX, the Huaihe River Basin Experiment (HUBEX), the South China Sea Monsoon Experiments (SCSMEX), and GAME-Tibet and some radiosonde as well as wind profile observations from Thailand, India, and Vietnam. The results show that the discrepancy between the two datasets is small for the monthly mean time scale. Therefore in the following diagnoses when NCEP–NCAR reanalysis is employed, we confine ourselves to the investigations of large-scale and long-term monthly mean diabatic heating over the TP

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Ana M. B. Nunes and John O. Roads

1. Introduction Many studies have focused on the adjustment of moisture and divergence analyses (e.g., Krishnamurti et al. 1984 , 1988 , 1991 ; Donner 1988 ; Heckley et al. 1990 ; Puri and Miller 1990 ; Puri and Davidson 1992 ; Aonashi 1993 ; Kasahara et al. 1994 ; Manobianco et al. 1994 ; Yap 1995 ; Treadon 1996 ) in order to improve precipitation forecasts. Some of these studies have used observed rain rates to directly adjust the moisture and diabatic heating profiles to

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Isidora Jankov, Paul J. Schultz, Christopher J. Anderson, and Steven E. Koch

microphysics configurations, two different PBL schemes were used: the local mixing eta PBL scheme, often referred to as Mellor–Yamada–Janjic 2.5 Janjic (2001) , and the nonlocal mixing Yonsei University (YSU) PBL scheme ( Noh et al. 2003 ) as an improved version of the medium-range forecasting model (MRF) PBL scheme ( Troen and Mahrt 1986 ). All model runs were initialized at 0000 UTC with both diabatic Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS) “hot” start ( Jian et al. 2003 ) and 40-km eta “cold” start

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Jingfeng Wang, Rafael L. Bras, and Elfatih A. B. Eltahir

associated with idealized land surface patterns in a dry atmosphere. Rotunno (1983) derived a two-dimensional analytical solution of the mesoscale circulation driven by the diurnal cycle of differential heating associated with the land–sea contrast. Dalu and Pielke (1989 , 1993) and Dalu et al. (1991) extended Rotunno’s work to study the effect of nonperiodic surface forcing on the mesoscale circulation. They found that the vertical heat flux generated by the mesoscale circulation is of the same

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