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Gang Chen, Isaac M. Held, and Walter A. Robinson

equivalent barotropic structure in the troposphere, is often referred to as a shift toward a more positive phase of an annular mode. Idealized models generate poleward shifts in the westerlies in response to increases in stratospheric temperature gradients ( Polvani and Kushner 2002 ; Kushner and Polvani 2004 ; Haigh et al. 2005 ), increases in surface temperature gradients ( Son and Lee 2005 ), increases in water vapor and the associated latent heating ( Frierson et al. 2006 ), and increases in the

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Edwin P. Gerber and Geoffrey K. Vallis

), the e -folding time scale of the annular mode decreases over fourfold, from 93 to 21 days. When the gradient is varied to the same extent in simulation set VIII, where we have introduced both topography and a diabatic heating anomaly to model land–sea contrast, the e -folding time scales are substantially shorter and nearly independent of the equilibrium temperature gradient, varying from 10–13 days. This is consistent with the time scale observed of the northern annular mode. The time scale of

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D. G. Dritschel and M. E. McIntyre

instability on the nonlinear evolution of a Rossby-wave critical layer. J. Fluid Mech. , 207 , 231 – 266 . Haynes , P. H. , 2005 : Stratospheric dynamics. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. , 37 , 263 – 293 . Haynes , P. H. , and E. F. Shuckburgh , 2000 : Effective diffusivity as a diagnostic of atmospheric transport. Part 1: Stratosphere. J. Geophys. Res. , 105 , 22777 – 22794 . Haynes , P. H. , and Coauthors , 1991 : On the “downward control” of extratropical diabatic circulations by eddy

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