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Jonathan Gula, M. Jeroen Molemaker, and James C. McWilliams

previously, there are other terms contributing to the frontal tendency: where is the straining deformation by the vertical velocity. It represents the conversion of the vertical buoyancy gradient to horizontal gradient by a component of differential vertical motion in the direction of the existing buoyancy gradient. The rate of frontogenesis related to the diabatic term in the density equation due to the vertical mixing by the KPP scheme is where K Tυ is the vertical mixing coefficient for tracers. The

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Ryan Abernathey and Paola Cessi

with the mean streamlines), transient eddy heat flux convergence will occur in northward meanders, and divergence will occur in southward meanders. A water parcel moving along a mean streamline will therefore experience heating in the north and cooling in the south, resulting in a net southward heat transport by the mean flow. To explore this complex interaction between standing and transient eddies, we now turn to numerical simulations of the equilibration process with and without topography. Fig

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Sean Haney, Baylor Fox-Kemper, Keith Julien, and Adrean Webb

flow velocity, and L is a characteristic length scale) that distinguish the submesoscale from larger-scale motions. The balance struck between turbulent mixing and restratification processes, such as geostrophic adjustment, restratifying instabilities, and penetrating solar heating, is very important for organisms that live in the mixed layer. Frontal instabilities that drive restratification are able to compete with destabilizing surface forcing in winter and enhance phytoplankton blooms (e

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