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Ryan M. Holmes, Jan D. Zika, and Matthew H. England

-order question in climate science. Critical to understanding and predicting these changes is an understanding of the role of the various diabatic processes responsible for transferring heat into and around the ocean and an accurate representation of these processes in climate models (e.g., Bryan 1987 ; Ferrari and Ferriera 2011 ). Heat enters the surface ocean predominantly in the tropics, particularly in the eastern equatorial upwelling regions at sea surface temperatures (SSTs) between 22° and 29°C

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Michael J. Bell

heat flux between about 45° and 60°S, with net surface heating strongest in the Atlantic and Indian Ocean sectors. As noted by Wacongne et al. (2003) and evident in Fig. 5.2 of Josey et al. (2013) , this east–west asymmetry appears to be a robust feature of net surface heat flux products. If the subsurface circulation is supposed to be nearly adiabatic, the surface heat fluxes are of great interest ( Walin 1982 ) as they represent the major transformations between water masses, and the

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Michael J. Bell

requires the surface cooling to form water that is denser than that in the layer below the surface before convection occurs. Section 8b discusses a case in which the salinities of the two layers differ, and (9) needs to be modified accordingly. Where the atmosphere surface temperature is warmer than that of the surface layer, the effective surface heating and diabatic mixing are taken to reduce with the surface layer depth divided by a mixing length λ Q , and is specified by There is taken to be

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Ivana Cerovečki and John Marshall

= ( · n σ ) n σ is the “residual eddy flux”—the flux that is not “skew” ( Plumb and Ferrari 2005 ). If · n σ = 0, then N σ res = 0 and the eddy flux divergence can be entirely represented as an advective process and subsumed into u res . Otherwise, there will always be a nonadvective contribution associated with the eddies. DM97 has pointed out that eddy buoyancy flux within the mixed layer includes both advective and diffusive components, where the latter are due to diabatic mixing along

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Anna-Lena Deppenmeier, Frank O. Bryan, William S. Kessler, and LuAnne Thompson

with El Niño ( Timmermann et al. 2018 )? To what degree is SST variability driven by adiabatic ( Jin 1997 ) versus diabatic processes ( Lengaigne et al. 2012 )? Often, diabatic processes have to be derived from residuals ( Meinen and McPhaden 2001 , 2000 ). Here, we employ full heat budgets from a high-resolution ocean model to explicitly calculate drivers of diabatic processes. The vertical branch of the equatorial circulation cannot be measured directly. Historically, an integrated box model

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Warren B. White and Jeffrey L. Annis

T A and T  ″ A are the mean and residual air temperatures, respectively; V A and V  ″ A are the mean and residual wind velocities, respectively; θ is the mean potential temperature; ω ´ is the residual pressure velocity in the p direction; ∇ · 〈 V ″ A T  ″ A 〉´ is the residual horizontal eddy thermal flux divergence (°C s −1 ); Q ′ D /( ρ A C PA ) is the residual diabatic heating (°C s −1 ); C PA is the specific heat of air; and ρ A is the density of air. This model represents

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Casimir de Lavergne, Gurvan Madec, Julien Le Sommer, A. J. George Nurser, and Alberto C. Naveira Garabato

2007 ; Talley et al. 2003 ; Talley 2008 , 2013 ). To close the abyssal overturning circulation and reach a steady state, the northward-flowing AABW must gain buoyancy and upwell across isopycnals in the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic basins. In the deep ocean, this buoyancy gain can only be achieved through two processes: mixing and geothermal heating. Were the cold bottom waters not consumed by such diabatic processes, they would gradually fill the whole ocean interior. In contrast, the

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Lu Anne Thompson, Kathryn A. Kelly, David Darr, and Robert Hallberg

, where the Kuroshio Extension is too far north, and where the mixed layers are too deep. This study shows that Rossby waves, which are traditionally thought to be purely adiabatic, can be greatly influenced by diabatic processes. This has been explored for decadal variability ( Liu 1999 ), but it is on the seasonal cycle that the dynamic impact of diapycnal velocity associated with the seasonal cycle of heating and cooling is the largest. Acknowledgments We acknowledge the TOPEX/Poseidon Extended

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A. J. George Nurser and John C. Marshall

large-scale potential vorticity at its base,~F~ is the heat input per unit area less that which warms the Ekman drift, and a~, Cw, and ~ are the volumeexpansion coefficient, heat capacity, and mean density of water, respectively. It is assumed that the mixed layeris convectively controlled and much deeper than the layer directly stirred by the wind. The field of S is studiedin a steady thermocline model in which patterns of Ekman pumping and diabatic heating drive flow to andfrom a mixed layer

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Shenn-Yu Chao

-dimensional primitive equationmodel for the ocean to investigate how cold fronts interact with the Gulf Stream and its adjacent waters duringcold-air outbreaks. The development of a cross-stream frontal circulation under the influence of the oceansurface heating and its impact on the ocean circulation are determined for various frontal and synoptic conditions.The diabatic heating under an offshore wind is shown to generate a convective boundary layer over the ocean,which deepens seaward. The interaction of the

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