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Julia H. Keller, Christian M. Grams, Michael Riemer, Heather M. Archambault, Lance Bosart, James D. Doyle, Jenni L. Evans, Thomas J. Galarneau Jr., Kyle Griffin, Patrick A. Harr, Naoko Kitabatake, Ron McTaggart-Cowan, Florian Pantillon, Julian F. Quinting, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Elizabeth A. Ritchie, Ryan D. Torn, and Fuqing Zhang

contributing to baroclinic conversion. The upper-tropospheric divergent outflow contributes to the ageostrophic geopotential flux. In an isentropic PV framework, (generalized) vertical motion is represented by diabatic heating, and hence diabatic PV modification is directly diagnosed. The upper-tropospheric divergent outflow is diagnosed as a separate process. More details on the differences between the two frameworks are provided by Teubler and Riemer (2016) and Wirth et al. (2018) . Interpreting PV

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Huw C. Davies

-scale development and subsynoptic across-frontal circulation patterns (e.g., Keyser et al. 1989 ; Martin 1999 ); explore the relative amplitude and nature of the forcing at different elevations (e.g., Trenberth 1978 ; Durran and Snellman 1987 ); infer qualitatively the major regions of ascent (e.g., Hoskins and Pedder 1980 ; Sanders and Hoskins 1990 ); examine the contribution of diabatic heating to cyclogenesis (e.g., Chang et al. 1984 ; Tsou et al. 1987 ; Strahl and Smith 2001 ); study jet flow and

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Dayton G. Vincent

aresummarized in Fig. 15, which shows 1) the energy cycle for all regions being dominated by a generation ofeddy potential energy by diabatic heating processes, aconversion of eddy potential to eddy kinetic energy,and a dissipation of eddy kinetic energy; and 2) theenergy cYCle for the SPCZ being dominant over thatfor the other three regions. It is also seen that the eddykinetic energy content is substantially greater in theSPCZ than in other regions. Thus, it is speculated thatthe SPCZ makes a significant

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John Molinari and Michael Dudek

isolated cumulonimbus clouds. The authorssuggested that the mesoscale heating profile representsthe dominant mode of diabatic heating in the tropics.Taken together, the studies reviewed in this sectionindicate that mesoscale organization of convectioncannot be overlooked. Mesoscale organization is also present in the pressureand wind fields, often with rather complex verticalstructure. It appears, however, that this structure develops primarily as a result of the diabatic sources andsinks associated

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T. N. Krishnamurti

.Hydrostatic relation gOz _ RT (3)Mass Continuity EquationOv + Ow 0 (4)Oy OpFirst Law of Thermodynamics - 1~ \R/cv O0 vO0 ~o00 ! vo H ot oy b~v +- - (5) ce \p/ 'Here H denotes diabatic heating. The energetics of this system may be expressed bythe relations

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Volkmar Wirth, Michael Riemer, Edmund K. M. Chang, and Olivia Martius

the perturbation under mean-flow deformation and shear. A comparable deformation term is missing from the Ertel-PV framework of Teubler and Riemer (2016) because the PV tendency is spatially averaged and the PV anomalies are not inverted to yield the associated wind and geopotential height anomalies. Another difference is in the treatment of diabatic processes. Diabatic heating does not directly enter the EKE equation, but instead appears indirectly through an enhancement of baroclinic

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David M. Schultz

pressure trough or wind shift. As was noted earlier, a trough at the surface exists because the overlying atmospheric column is warmer than the adjacent locations. To warm the column, we consider the terms in the thermodynamic tendency equation (e.g., Bluestein 1992 , p. 197): warm advection, descent, and diabatic heating. The overlying column can be warmed through warm advection, which is what occurs with the inhomogeneities mechanism ( section 3d ) and the alongfront temperature advection mechanism

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Daniel Keyser and M. A. Shapiro

(w'O')/Oz]. The vertical distribution of diabatic heating due to CAT acts to inhibit thevertical spreading of the isentropes at the LMW thatwould be required if potential vorticity were conservedduring the frontogenetical scale contraction of the cy150p~$O04 IO00 km ) FIG. 12. Schematic illustration of regions of clear-air turbulence(stippled) in the vicinity of an upper-level jet core and frontal zone,Solid and dashed lines respectively indicate potential

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Robert Wood

maintains the cloud layer (e.g., Nicholls 1984 ; Bretherton and Wyant 1997 ), and controls the development of mesoscale organization ( Shao and Randall 1996 ; Atkinson and Zhang 1996 ; Jonker et al. 1999 ; de Roode et al. 2004 ). Latent heating in the upward branches of the convective elements and evaporation in downdrafts, provides an additional source of turbulence that strengthens the convection (e.g., Moeng et al. 1992 ). Thus, stratocumulus clouds frequently exert first-order effects upon

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Tammy M. Weckwerth and David B. Parsons

small sector of a western Kansas dryline. (iii) Mesoscale low pressure areas along the dryline. Bluestein et al. (1988) observed localized differences in low-level diabatic heating, which led to pressure decreases in the dry air that locally enhanced low-level convergence and led to convection initiation. (iv) Boundary layer circulations intersecting the dryline. Hane et al. (1997) observed the formation of a cloud line in the dry air west of a dryline. The cloud line apparently formed owing to

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