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Weiwei Li, Zhuo Wang, Melinda S. Peng, and James A. Ridout

convection day, and positive (negative) lags indicate the time after (before) the peak convection day. The patterns of evolution of the diabatic heating rate (Q1; Yanai et al. 1973 ; Yanai and Tomita 1998 ) reveal the typical top-heavy heating profiles on “day 0” for all three analyses ( Fig. 4 ), which is consistent with many previous studies (e.g., Lin et al. 2004 ; Morita et al. 2006 ). But similar to the RH composites, the MJO signals in Q1 in the NOGAPS analysis are weaker (by about 10%) than

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Shaowu Bao, L. Bernardet, G. Thompson, E. Kalina, K. Newman, and M. Biswas

, considering that any difference in hydrometeor concentrations resulting from the horizontal advection will have less of a dynamical impact on the simulated storm because horizontal advection generally does not cause as significant phase changes or differences in diabatic heating in tropical cyclones as when the vertical motion is involved. The differences in the horizontal advection between FA an FA-adv may also have some secondary impacts on the simulated tropical cyclones which are not discussed in this

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Mrinal K. Biswas, Jun A. Zhang, Evelyn Grell, Evan Kalina, Kathryn Newman, Ligia Bernardet, Laurie Carson, James Frimel, and Georg Grell

indicates H6CL, and blue indicates H6GF forecasts. 1) Case study showing the difference in time mean cross sections of Vt , Vr , humidity, convergence, and diabatic heating A comparison of the tangential V t and radial V r velocities between H6CL and H6GF is shown in Fig. 3 . These quantities are time averaged over the 6 h leading up to the intensification at the 24-h lead time. The two forecasts diverge thereafter. The H6GF exhibited stronger tangential winds, and the radial gradient of those

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Lance F. Bosart and Devin B. Dean

response to differential diabatic heating associated withthe diurnal heating cycle and thermal advection resulting from the larger-scale circulation. After Tropical Storm Agnes reintensified while moving just offshore, new cyclogenesis began over northeasternPennsylvania along the inland frontal boundary by 0000 UTC 23 June. Subsequently, Agnes dissipated aftercrossing western Long Island, while the system to the west became the dominant cyclonic circulation. Thewestward cyclonic redevelopment and

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Ian G. McKendry and Cliff G. Revell

results show that diabatic heating, resultingin local sea breezes, is the primary causal mechanismfor the mesoscale eddy modeled over south Auckland.Both the Manukau Harbor and Hunua Range appearto play a secondary role in eddy genesis by reinforcingthe cyclonicity of the flows that develop. The local harbor breeze enhances the larger-scale, west coast seabreeze, which forms the northwest quadrant of theeddy, while anabatic effects associated with the HunuaRange contribute to the cyclonic pattern in

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Michael J. Brennan, Daryl T. Kleist, Kate Howard, and Sharanya J. Majumdar

resulted in a much more vertically coherent vortex by 0000 UTC 7 October relative to CTRL. This suggests that differences in the analysis and short-term evolution of the Karen vortex and the environment due to the G-IV dropwindsonde data played a role in the longer-term evolution of the structure and intensity of the cyclone, including the distribution and magnitude of diabatic heating associated with Karen. In particular, the vortex in CTRL did not intensify, despite being located within a similar

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Shu-Ya Chen, Cheng-Peng Shih, Ching-Yuang Huang, and Wen-Hsin Teng

translation and is not shown in Fig. 17 . The net PV tendency budget indicates a primary direction closely following the major WN-1 flow direction in the vicinity of the typhoon vortex. PV horizontal advection indeed dominates the PV tendency budget to significantly dictate the typhoon translation ( Figs. 17b,e ) for both GTS and BND, which is, however, somewhat modified by the effect of differential diabatic heating ( Figs. 17c,f ). The translation velocity induced by the diabatic heating term is

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Christopher P. J. Scott and Peter J. Sousounis

-hPa conditions over the same period. The surface low moves very little over the course of the first 24 h, suggesting that diabatic heating from the lakes plays a role in its maintenance. By 05/1200, a broader area of low pressure begins to develop over southern Quebec and New England in response to the eastward progression of the 500-hPa pattern. Despite the eastward movement of the 500-hPa closed low, and abatement of significant quasigeostrophic forcing, synoptic-scale surface troughing persists

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Zhan Li and Zhaoxia Pu

–300 hPa). Then, when the convection is enhanced, the inflows combined with the updraft bring even more moist air (with upward airmass fluxes continuously strengthening) to the middle to upper levels ( Figs. 18e,g ), and the warm core forms before and near Nuri’s genesis and then further enhances afterward ( Figs. 17e,g ). Figure 19 demonstrates that the diabatic heating induced by convection contributes to the upper-level warming. The intense rainfall rate (shown in Fig. 4 ) also validates the

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Robert S. Ross, T. N. Krishnamurti, S. Pattnaik, and A. Simon

processes represented by the five terms on the right-hand side of the equation: horizontal advection, vertical advection, vertical differential of heating, horizontal differential of heating, and friction. The friction term is not included in the calculations of this study. The total diabatic heating is considered to be the sum of terms 2–4 on the right-hand side of the equation, (i.e., vertical advection, vertical differential of heating, and horizontal differential of heating). The vertical advection

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