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Peter J. Marinescu, Susan C. van den Heever, Max Heikenfeld, Andrew I. Barrett, Christian Barthlott, Corinna Hoose, Jiwen Fan, Ann M. Fridlind, Toshi Matsui, Annette K. Miltenberger, Philip Stier, Benoit Vie, Bethan A. White, and Yuwei Zhang

Program (NSF Grant DGE-1840343). PS and MH acknowledge support from the European 330 Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013)/ERC Grant Agreement FP7-280025 (ACCLAIM), from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) Project BACCHUS under Grant Agreement 603445, and as well as by the European Research Council (ERC) project (RECAP) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program with Grant Agreement 724602. For the UM simulations, AKM acknowledges

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Yvonne Boose, Zamin A. Kanji, Monika Kohn, Berko Sierau, Assaf Zipori, Ian Crawford, Gary Lloyd, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Erik Herrmann, Piotr Kupiszewski, Martin Steinbacher, and Ulrike Lohmann

and INPs. So far, most existing field studies represent individual samples, restricted in space and time, while a climatology of atmospheric INPs related to dust aerosol over Europe, for example, is still missing ( Hande et al. 2015 ). Only by understanding what controls INP concentrations at different locations as a function of temperature, wind direction, airmass origin, and season, can we improve our knowledge of INPs. This is necessary to quantify natural variations in the present-day climate

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Jianjun Liu, Zhanqing Li, and Maureen Cribb

vertical velocity ω at 700 hPa has been extensively used to constrain the dynamic condition ( Bony et al. 2004 ; Medeiros and Stevens 2011 ; Su et al. 2010 ). LTS is typically used to constrain the thermodynamic condition ( Matsui et al. 2004 ; Lebsock et al. 2008 ; Wang et al. 2014 ; Dong et al. 2015 ) and is calculated as the difference between the potential temperature of the free troposphere (700 hPa) and the surface. The ω and LTS are obtained from the European Centre for Medium

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Andrew R. Jongeward, Zhanqing Li, Hao He, and Xiaoxiong Xiong

seen globally, the reconciliation of discrepancies hinges on regional analyses. Stronger regional trends are anticipated that should be easier to detect and quantify relative to global trends ( Mishchenko and Geogdzhayev 2007 ). For example, trends from studies using AVHRR, MODIS, and SeaWiFS agree with a positive trend over Southeast Asia while regions of Europe and the United States exhibit negative trends ( Zhao et al. 2008 ; Hsu et al. 2012 ; Zhang and Reid 2010 ). The increase in aerosol

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Baolin Jiang, Bo Huang, Wenshi Lin, and Suishan Xu

Hydrologic Research Laboratory’s land surface module ( Chen and Dudhia 2001 ; Ek et al. 2003 ). In addition, a chemical reaction model was based on the Regional Acid Deposition Model, version 2 ( Stockwell et al. 1990 ), and the Modal Aerosol Dynamics Model for Europe/Secondary Organic Aerosol Model (MADE/SORGAM) ( Ackermann et al. 1998 ; Schell et al. 2001 ) was used as the driver module of the aerosols. In MADE/SORGAM, the chemical composition of the Aitken and accumulation modes generally contains

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Stacey Kawecki, Geoffrey M. Henebry, and Allison L. Steiner

et al. 1990 ), and particle-phase chemistry is simulated with the Modal Aerosol Dynamics Model for Europe (MADE; Schell et al. 2001 ), including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, and organic carbon. New particle formation is included via nucleation of sulfuric acid and the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is simulated with the Secondary Organic Aerosol Model (SORGAM; Schell et al. 2001 ). b. Emissions and chemical boundary conditions We implement the U.S. Environmental

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Jie Peng, Zhanqing Li, Hua Zhang, Jianjun Liu, and Maureen Cribb

(CBH) of all single-layer cloudy profiles were extracted from the CloudSat geometric profile lidar product (2B-GEOPROF-lidar). Temperatures at cloud base (CBT) and cloud top (CTT) were extracted from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) auxiliary (ECMWF-AUX) product. Other variables extracted from the ECMWF-AUX product include relative humidity (RH) profiles, column water vapor (CWV), and lower-tropospheric static stability (LTSS), which is defined as the potential

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Yan Yang, Jiwen Fan, L. Ruby Leung, Chun Zhao, Zhanqing Li, and Daniel Rosenfeld

many places in the United States and Europe. Fig . 5. (a) The average daily precipitation from observed rain gauge stations. (b) The scatterplot of daily mean precipitation showing the correlation of observations from the stations shown in (a) with P_ALL (red) and C_ALL (black). (c) The occurrence frequency of each rain category from observations (gray), P_ALL (red), and C_ALL (black). The data considered are the hourly precipitation rates with a rain rate > 0.25 mm h −1 during the study time

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Jiwen Fan, Yuan Wang, Daniel Rosenfeld, and Xiaohong Liu

influence of aerosols in the Northern Hemisphere ( Xie et al. 2013 ). A recent modeling study by Wang et al. (2015) examined the response of large-scale circulations to the shift in maximum pollution from the United States and Europe to Asia since the 1970s. A reduced meridional streamfunction and zonal winds over the tropics as well as a poleward shift of the jet stream in the present-day aerosol conditions suggests weakened and expanded tropical circulations under the influence of the altered cloud

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Romy Ullrich, Corinna Hoose, Ottmar Möhler, Monika Niemand, Robert Wagner, Kristina Höhler, Naruki Hiranuma, Harald Saathoff, and Thomas Leisner

: Seasonal variability of Saharan desert dust and ice nucleating particles over Europe . Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 15 , 4389 – 4397 , doi: 10.5194/acp-15-4389-2015 . 10.5194/acp-15-4389-2015 Henning , S. , and Coauthors , 2012 : Hygroscopic growth and droplet activation of soot particles: Uncoated, succinic or sulfuric acid coated . Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 12 , 4525 – 4537 , doi: 10.5194/acp-12-4525-2012 . 10.5194/acp-12-4525-2012 Hill , T. , P. DeMott , Y. Tobo , J. Fröhlich-Nowoisky , B

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