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Ronald M. Errico, George Ohring, Fuzhong Weng, Peter Bauer, Brad Ferrier, Jean-François Mahfouf, and Joe Turk

–60 m. Detailed observations of cloud properties are made at the three Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) sites of the U.S. Department of Energy and also from the Cloudnet European initiative. Although all these observations have limited global coverage during any (3–12 h) data assimilation period, they will be useful for calibrating and validating retrievals from passive sensors and for measuring and validating the modeling of cloud properties and the distribution of clouds in the

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Arthur Y. Hou and Sara Q. Zhang

10°N and 10°S from three global analyses and the GPCP satellite gauge estimate ( Global Precipitation Climatology Project 2004 ). The three analyses consist of ERA-40 ( European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts 2004 ), which does not assimilate precipitation data; the operational NCEP/GDAS analysis ( National Center for Environmental Prediction 2004 ), which assimilates TMI and SSM/I rainfall rates in its 3DVAR system (from 16 October 2001); and the GEOS-3/TRMM reanalysis. Compared with

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Philippe Lopez

has become reality in 3DVAR at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP; Treadon et al. 2002 ) and in 4DVAR at the Japan Meteorological Administration (JMA; Tsuyuki et al. 2002 ). Since June 2005, rainy 19- and 22-GHz brightness temperatures from the SSM/I are operationally assimilated in 4DVAR at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF; Bauer et al. 2006a , b ). The progress toward the inclusion of parameterizations of moist processes in variational data

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Ronald M. Errico, Peter Bauer, and Jean-François Mahfouf

Centers for Environmental Prediction, the Japan Meteorological Agency, and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts—already incorporate precipitation observations operationally. While still unperfected, these implementations based on optimal control theory permit explicit accounting of error statistics, clear identification of the conditions for optimality, and validation in a real, state-of-the-art forecast context. Thus far much more effort has been devoted to the assimilation of

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Christopher W. O’Dell, Peter Bauer, and Ralf Bennartz

European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) has begun assimilation of microwave radiances under precipitating conditions using an Eddington model ( Bauer et al. 2004 , 2006a , b ), and other efforts are under way elsewhere ( Deblonde et al. 2007 ). Future assimilation efforts may also include the assimilation of infrared radiances under cloudy conditions ( Heilliette and Garand 2007 ). To produce a successful assimilation, it is necessary to be able to accurately simulate radiances

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Fuzhong Weng, Tong Zhu, and Banghua Yan

( McNally 2002 ). In the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) 4DVAR system, two approaches were tested for assimilating water vapor information from satellite microwave imager data. In the first approach, 1DVAR technique was used to generate increments of total column water vapor, which is then assimilated through 4DVAR, which is referred to as “1DVAR + 4DVAR” ( Bauer et al. 2006a , b ). The second approach is direct assimilation of surface rain-rate observations from satellite

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Fuzhong Weng

been pursued by some major centers. At the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), Moreau et al. (2004) developed a one-dimensional variational (1DVAR) system to assimilate the radiances at the microwave window channel frequencies that are more sensitive to cloud liquid water, water vapor, sea surface wind, and temperature. The 1DVAR retrievals of the vertically integrated cloud liquid water and water vapor are then assimilated into a four-dimensional variation (4DVAR) system

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Chinnawat Surussavadee and David H. Staelin

.33° and ±48.95° from nadir, respectively. Each scan maps a swath beneath the spacecraft ∼2200 km wide with 30 AMSU-A views and 90 AMSU-B views; the scan periods for AMSU-A and AMSU-B are 8 and 2.67 s, respectively. Similar microwave-sounding instruments include ASMU/Humidity Sounder for Brazil (HSB) on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Aqua satellite, AMSU/European Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) on NOAA-18 , the future ATMS on the National Polar-orbiting Operational

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