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Lifen Jiang, Yaner Yan, Oleksandra Hararuk, Nathaniel Mikle, Jianyang Xia, Zheng Shi, Jerry Tjiputra, Tongwen Wu, and Yiqi Luo

basis for improving estimates of vegetation and soil carbon, natural exchanges of CO 2 , and net historic shifts of carbon between the biosphere and the atmosphere ( Gibbs 2006 ). To reflect the changes in land cover over time, Gibbs (2006) updated the Olson et al. (1985) database to a more contemporary land-cover representation using the Global Land Cover 2000 database ( European Commission, Joint Research Centre 2003 ) to estimate biomass carbon in living vegetation on a global scale. Data

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Eleanor J. Burke, Chris D. Jones, and Charles D. Koven

sink to a source of carbon under future climate change. The permafrost-carbon climate feedback is probably the biggest biogeochemical feedback not currently included within coupled earth system GCMs. Acknowledgments The work described in this paper was supported by the Joint DECC/Defra Met Office Hadley Centre Climate Programme (GA01101). The authors acknowledge the financial support by the European Union FP7-ENVIRONMENT project PAGE21 under Contract GA282700. Performing the MOHC CMIP5 simulations

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A. Anav, P. Friedlingstein, M. Kidston, L. Bopp, P. Ciais, P. Cox, C. Jones, M. Jung, R. Myneni, and Z. Zhu

surface temperature and precipitation were constructed from statistical interpolation of station observations by the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) of the University of East Anglia ( New et al. 2002 ; Mitchell and Jones 2005 ). CRU provides a global coverage only for land points between 1901 and 2006 with a spatial resolution of 0.5° ( Table 4 ). Most of the previous model–data comparison studies use the 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-40; or other

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Alan J. Hewitt, Ben B. B. Booth, Chris D. Jones, Eddy S. Robertson, Andy J. Wiltshire, Philip G. Sansom, David B. Stephenson, and Stan Yip

. , 34 , 1 – 26 , doi: 10.1007/s00382-009-0640-6 . Masui , T. , and Coauthors , 2011 : An emission pathway to stabilize at 6 W m −2 of radiative forcing . Climatic Change , 109 , 59 – 76 , doi: 10.1007/s10584-011-0150-5 . Monteiro , P. M. S. , and Coauthors , 2009 : A global sea surface carbon observing system: Assessment of changing sea surface CO 2 and air–sea CO 2 fluxes. Proc. OceanObs’09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society , Venice, Italy, European Space

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V. Brovkin, L. Boysen, V. K. Arora, J. P. Boisier, P. Cadule, L. Chini, M. Claussen, P. Friedlingstein, V. Gayler, B. J. J. M. van den Hurk, G. C. Hurtt, C. D. Jones, E. Kato, N. de Noblet-Ducoudré, F. Pacifico, J. Pongratz, and M. Weiss

number of analyzed LUCID–CMIP5 simulations ranges from one for the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MIROC); EC-Earth Consortium (EC-Earth); and L'Institut Pierre Simon Laplace Coupled Model, version 5, coupled with the Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO) (IPSL-CM5A) models to three for the Second Generation Canadian Earth System Model (CanESM2) and Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model, version 2 (Earth System) (HadGEM2-ES) ( Table 2 ). Table 1. List of model

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Spencer Liddicoat, Chris Jones, and Eddy Robertson

Programme (GA01101). Performing the MOHC CMIP5 simulations was supported by the European Commission's 7th Framework Programme, under Grant Agreement 226520, COMBINE (Comprehensive Modelling of the Earth System for Better Climate Prediction and Projection) project. We thank two anonymous reviewers for their thorough and constructive comments. REFERENCES Arora , V. K. , and G. J. Boer , 2010 : Uncertainties in the 20th century carbon budget associated with land use change . Global Change Biol

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ChuanLi Jiang, Sarah T. Gille, Janet Sprintall, and Colm Sweeney

currents with satellite sensors . Oceanography , 23 , 94 – 103 . Dohan , K. , and Coauthors , 2010 : Measuring the global ocean surface circulation with satellite and in situ observations. Proc. OceanObs’09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society, Venice, Italy, European Space Agency, WPP-306. Downes , S. M. , A. Gnanadesikan , S. M. Griffies , and J. L. Sarmiento , 2011 : Water mass exchange in the Southern Ocean in coupled climate models . J. Phys. Oceanogr

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Jörg Schwinger, Jerry F. Tjiputra, Christoph Heinze, Laurent Bopp, James R. Christian, Marion Gehlen, Tatiana Ilyina, Chris D. Jones, David Salas-Mélia, Joachim Segschneider, Roland Séférian, and Ian Totterdell

–concentration feedback is strongly dependent on the rate of change of atmospheric CO 2 and hence scenario dependent. In view of these results, future research should be directed toward finding an improved formalism for carbon cycle feedback quantification. Acknowledgments We thank three anonymous reviewers for their constructive and helpful comments on this paper. The research leading to these results was supported through the projects COMBINE and CARBOCHANGE, which received funding from the European Commission

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