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Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, Shoshiro Minobe, and Shang-Ping Xie

’s influence, such as that which warms Europe during winter, may be limited in the horizontal and vertical extent. On the other hand, recent high-resolution observations from satellites show that mesoscale meandering of major ocean fronts and oceanic eddies affect the surface atmosphere in general and surface winds in particular ( Nonaka and Xie 2003 ; Chelton et al. 2004 ; Chelton and Wentz 2005 ; Sampe and Xie 2007 ; Small et al. 2008 ). A vertical mixing mechanism is often used to explain the SST

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Claude Frankignoul, Nathalie Sennéchael, Young-Oh Kwon, and Michael A. Alexander

. 10 , bottom). The signal is most significant in the middle and upper troposphere (Z250 and Z500, respectively). Based on lag 3, it reaches about 25 m for the southern lobe and 35 m for the northern lobe at 250 hPa, 25% less at 500 hPa, and 0.8 and 1.7 hPa, respectively, for SLP. It is associated with significant hemispheric teleconnections, in particular, significant highs above northeastern America and western Europe, as in the WP pattern ( Fig. 8 , top). Since the OEI is normalized, this

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Young-Oh Kwon, Michael A. Alexander, Nicholas A. Bond, Claude Frankignoul, Hisashi Nakamura, Bo Qiu, and Lu Anne Thompson

. , and B. S. Giese , 2008 : A reanalysis of ocean climate using Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA). Mon. Wea. Rev. , 136 , 2999 – 3017 . Cassou , C. , and L. Terray , 2001 : Oceanic forcing of the wintertime low frequency atmospheric variability in the North Atlantic European sector: A study with the ARPEGE model. J. Climate , 14 , 4266 – 4291 . Cassou , C. , C. Deser , L. Terray , J. W. Hurrell , and M. Drévillon , 2004 : Summer sea surface temperature conditions

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Haiming Xu, Hiroki Tokinaga, and Shang-Ping Xie

. 2000 ). We use a monthly product of wind velocity on a 0.25°grid from a remote sensing system. Altimeters on the European Remote Sensing (ERS), Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX)/Poseidon (T/P), and JASON satellites measure SSH deviations from their long-term mean at nadir. We use a SSH dataset merging all available altimeter observations ( Ducet et al. 2000 ) from January 1992 on a 0.25°grid. A mean SSH product derived from drifter, altimeter, and wind observations is used ( Maximenko et al. 2009

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Jianping Li, Zhiwei Wu, Zhihong Jiang, and Jinhai He

European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Re-Analysis (ERA-40) data ( Uppala et al. 2005 ) and ERA-interim reanalysis datasets; and 4) the improved extended reconstructed sea surface temperature (SST), version 2 (ERSST V2; Smith and Reynolds 2004 ). Global-warming A1B stabilization experiments (with an atmospheric CO 2 concentration of 720 ppm) for the twenty-first century (2000–99) used in this study are conducted by 14 state-of-the-art ocean–atmosphere general circulation models that

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Kathryn A. Kelly, R. Justin Small, R. M. Samelson, Bo Qiu, Terrence M. Joyce, Young-Oh Kwon, and Meghan F. Cronin

. (2008) found a measurable vertical velocity to heights of 300 hPa, together with an upper-tropospheric horizontal divergence signal directly over the GS, which they have argued is a direct response to SST-driven boundary layer interactions at the GS front ( Fig. 9 ). Minobe et al. (2008) suggest that deep convection is occurring over the GS and that planetary waves may consequently be excited by the deep heating, with far-field effects extending to Europe. An alternative interpretation is that

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Lu Anne Thompson and Young-Oh Kwon

-resolution Extended Reconstruction SST version 3 (ERSST, available online at http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/research/sst/ersstv3.php ; Smith et al. 2008 ) 2° data from 1909 to 2008. We also use a merged SSH product from multiple radar altimeters [including TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1 , the European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS), and Envisat ] from the Archiving, Validation, and Interpretation of Satellite Oceanographic data (AVISO, available online at http://www.aviso.oceanobs.com ; Ducet et al. 2000

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Nicholas A. Bond, Meghan F. Cronin, and Matthew Garvert

et al. (2008) and Torn and Hakim (2009) . The former study investigated the downstream predictability using the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ensemble prediction system; the latter study used an ensemble of NWP model simulations to explore the sensitivity of the modeled storm to initial conditions during the early portion of its extratropical phase. The standard deviations in 500-hPa geopotential height from these studies, in the vicinity of Tokage and downstream

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Terrence M. Joyce, Young-Oh Kwon, and Lisan Yu

-derived fields and 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-40) and National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP–NCAR) reanalyses that have been optimally combined using the Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) 3.0 bulk flux algorithm. The OAFlux latent and sensible heat flux estimates are unbiased, and the root-mean-square (rms) difference is less than 8 W m −2 when compared with daily flux time series

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James F. Booth, Lu Anne Thompson, Jérôme Patoux, Kathryn A. Kelly, and Suzanne Dickinson

Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM; Simpson et al. 1996 ), and free-tropospheric winds from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analyses Simmons and Gibson (2000) , Minobe et al. show that the SST has a significant influence on the tropospheric wind fields and precipitation patterns. The annually averaged rain pattern responds to changes in the location of the Gulf Stream in their 50-km-resolution atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) runs. The SST also

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