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Gabriel A. Vecchi, Rym Msadek, Whit Anderson, You-Soon Chang, Thomas Delworth, Keith Dixon, Rich Gudgel, Anthony Rosati, Bill Stern, Gabriele Villarini, Andrew Wittenberg, Xiasong Yang, Fanrong Zeng, Rong Zhang, and Shaoqing Zhang

. Scaife , 2010 : Skilful multi-year predictions of Atlantic hurricane frequency . Nat. Geosci. , 3 , 846 – 849 , doi:10.1038/ngeo1004 . Smith , D. M. , and Coauthors , 2014 : Comments on “Multiyear predictions of North Atlantic hurricane frequency: Promise and limitations.” J. Climate , 27 , 487 – 489 . Sutton , R. T. , and D. L. R. Hodson , 2005 : Atlantic Ocean forcing of North American and European summer climate . Science , 309 , 115 – 118 , doi:10.1126/science.1109496

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David E. Rupp, Philip W. Mote, Nathaniel L. Bindoff, Peter A. Stott, and David A. Robinson

European heat wave (e.g., Stott et al. 2004 ). Other important aspects of global climate, for example, the El Niño–Southern Oscillation and tropical cyclones, have not exhibited a detectable change ( Hegerl et al. 2007 ). Northern Hemisphere (NH) snow cover extent (SCE) is among the most important indicators of global climate variability and change. An increase in global temperature should cause a decline in total snow cover extent given the 0°C-threshold response of snow formation and melt. However

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Kerrie L. Geil, Yolande L. Serra, and Xubin Zeng

TRMM 3B42v6 product performs well over the monsoon region. Monthly geopotential height and wind are provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Interim Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim; Dee et al. 2011 ) and are obtained from the Research Data Archive (RDA; : dataset ds627.0). ERA-Interim is produced at spectral T255 horizontal resolution with 60 vertical layers and is provided at 6-hourly intervals on a 0.75° × 0.75° grid with 37 vertical pressure

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Paul A. Dirmeyer, Yan Jin, Bohar Singh, and Xiaoqin Yan

's native grid for only ice-free land points based on each model's land–sea ice mask. The data from each model are then interpolated bilinearly onto the operational grid of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts operational forecast model, which is T1279 or a regular longitude–latitude grid of 2560 × 1280 grid boxes. This is a much higher resolution than any of the CMIP5 models, thus ensuring that information content is not lost in the process of interpolation through smoothing, either

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Brian A. Colle, Zhenhai Zhang, Kelly A. Lombardo, Edmund Chang, Ping Liu, and Minghua Zhang

central Atlantic (EC-WA)] over eastern North America and the western North Atlantic ( Fig. 1 ). The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Interim Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim; Dee et al. 2011 ) was also used to test a 10-yr period (~58-km grid spacing and 60 levels), and the cyclone density results over the Atlantic were within 5% of the CFSR in most locations (not shown). This is consistent with Hodges et al. (2011) , who showed that tracking cyclones in these and other reanalyses

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Jeanne M. Thibeault and Anji Seth

. Stouffer , and G. A. Meehl , 2012 : An overview of CMIP5 and the experiment design . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 93 , 485 – 498 . van Vliet , M. T. H. , J. R. Yearsley , F. Ludwig , S. Vogele , D. P. Lettenmaier , and P. Kabat , 2012 : Vulnerability of US and European electricity supply to climate change . Nat. Climate Change , 2 , 676 – 681 . Wang , C. , 2007 : Variability of the Caribbean low-level jet and its relations to climate . Climate Dyn. , 29 , 411 – 422

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Xianan Jiang, Eric D. Maloney, Jui-Lin F. Li, and Duane E. Waliser

during the period from 1998 to 2010. TRMM 3B42 rainfall is a global precipitation product based on multisatellite and rain gauge analyses. It provides precipitation estimates with 3-hourly temporal resolution on a 0.25° spatial resolution grid in a global belt between 50°S and 50°N. Daily wind fields during the period of the TRMM rainfall observations are obtained from the recent European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Interim Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim, hereafter ERA-I) ( Dee et al

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Justin Sheffield, Suzana J. Camargo, Rong Fu, Qi Hu, Xianan Jiang, Nathaniel Johnson, Kristopher B. Karnauskas, Seon Tae Kim, Jim Kinter, Sanjiv Kumar, Baird Langenbrunner, Eric Maloney, Annarita Mariotti, Joyce E. Meyerson, J. David Neelin, Sumant Nigam, Zaitao Pan, Alfredo Ruiz-Barradas, Richard Seager, Yolande L. Serra, De-Zheng Sun, Chunzai Wang, Shang-Ping Xie, Jin-Yi Yu, Tao Zhang, and Ming Zhao

and global climate associations, such as northeast Brazilian and Sahel rainfall (e.g., Folland et al. 1986 ; Rowell et al. 1995 ; Wang et al. 2012 ), hurricane activity in the North Atlantic and the eastern North Pacific ( Goldenberg et al. 2001 ; Wang and Lee 2009 ), and North American and European summer climate ( Enfield et al. 2001 ; McCabe et al. 2004 ; Sutton and Hodson 2005 ). In spite of its importance, the mechanism of the AMO is still unclear. Several studies have indicated the

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Justin Sheffield, Andrew P. Barrett, Brian Colle, D. Nelun Fernando, Rong Fu, Kerrie L. Geil, Qi Hu, Jim Kinter, Sanjiv Kumar, Baird Langenbrunner, Kelly Lombardo, Lindsey N. Long, Eric Maloney, Annarita Mariotti, Joyce E. Meyerson, Kingtse C. Mo, J. David Neelin, Sumant Nigam, Zaitao Pan, Tong Ren, Alfredo Ruiz-Barradas, Yolande L. Serra, Anji Seth, Jeanne M. Thibeault, Julienne C. Stroeve, Ze Yang, and Lei Yin

with the highest spatial correlations of May–October 850-hPa geopotential heights and winds when compared with the Interim European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim; Geil et al. 2013 ). The HadCM3, HadGEM2-ES, and CanESM2 also perform the best over the larger monsoon region ( Table 12 ). Geil et al. (2013) find that the models that best represent the seasonal shift of the monsoon ridge and subtropical highs over the North Pacific and Atlantic tend to

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Suzana J. Camargo

values of relative humidity in mid levels in the reanalysis compared to the climate models, as there are known differences between the relative humidity in the 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Re-Analysis (ERA) and NCEP reanalysis ( Daoud et al. 2009 ) and biases in the midtroposphere relative humidity in the NCEP reanalysis ( Bony et al. 1997 ). We calculated the difference between the models and NCEP reanalysis for the annual zonal-mean climatological relative humidity at

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