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David C. Fritts, Ronald B. Smith, Michael J. Taylor, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, Andreas Dörnbrack, Markus Rapp, Bifford P. Williams, P.-Dominique Pautet, Katrina Bossert, Neal R. Criddle, Carolyn A. Reynolds, P. Alex Reinecke, Michael Uddstrom, Michael J. Revell, Richard Turner, Bernd Kaifler, Johannes S. Wagner, Tyler Mixa, Christopher G. Kruse, Alison D. Nugent, Campbell D. Watson, Sonja Gisinger, Steven M. Smith, Ruth S. Lieberman, Brian Laughman, James J. Moore, William O. Brown, Julie A. Haggerty, Alison Rockwell, Gregory J. Stossmeister, Steven F. Williams, Gonzalo Hernandez, Damian J. Murphy, Andrew R. Klekociuk, Iain M. Reid, and Jun Ma

overview to those efforts performed specifically for comparisons with observational data or which offer a global perspective on resolved GW sources, propagation, and effects. The earliest studies of mountain waves (MWs) in the 1930s employed balloons and gliders to sample MW flows in North Africa and Europe (e.g., Queney 1936a , b ; Küttner 1938 , 1939 ; Manley 1945 ). These observations provided key insights into the structure of MWs and lee waves and, together with the Sierra Wave Project (see

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Sonja Gisinger, Andreas Dörnbrack, Vivien Matthias, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, Benedikt Ehard, Lars Hoffmann, Bernd Kaifler, Christopher G. Kruse, and Markus Rapp

. Data sources Operational analyses of the Integrated Forecast System (IFS) of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) are used to provide meteorological data to characterize the atmospheric situation. The 6-hourly operational analysis and hourly forecast fields of the IFS cycle 40r1 have a horizontal resolution on the reduced linear Gaussian grid of about 16 km (T L 1279) and 137 vertical model levels (L137) from the ground to ~80 km (0.01 hPa) with layer thicknesses gradually

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Stephen D. Eckermann, James D. Doyle, P. Alex Reinecke, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Ronald B. Smith, David C. Fritts, and Andreas Dörnbrack

forecast waves before tropospheric westerlies brought the source regions into the DEEPWAVE RAO and within flight range of the NGV. The left columns of Fig. 8 show examples of this upstream forecast validation during DEEPWAVE. Upper panels show operational forecasts of 7 hPa vertical velocity from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Integrated Forecasting System (IFS), revealing intense nonorographic gravity waves predicted to the south of Tasmania on 6 July. The AIRS

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Benjamin Witschas, Stephan Rahm, Andreas Dörnbrack, Johannes Wagner, and Markus Rapp

flown along the same mountain transect, giving both the wind vector and the vertical wind speed with a slight temporal difference of about 1 h. However, as the data coverage of both measurements can be different, not every LOS wind measurement may correspond to a wind vector measurement that can be used for correction. Thus, to be able to correct all LOS measurements, the horizontal wind from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF; T1279 L137, cycle 40r1) operational analyses on

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Qingfang Jiang, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, and Bifford P. Williams

1. Introduction Many early studies of gravity waves forced by flow over terrain [aka mountain waves (MWs)] have focused on the troposphere, where the dynamics are often associated with dramatic local weather phenomena such as downslope windstorms, rotors, or flight-level clear-air turbulence. Commonly observed tropospheric MWs have relatively short horizontal wavelengths (~50 km or less) even over major barriers such as the European Alps (e.g., Smith et al. 2002 ) and Sierra Nevada (e

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Benedikt Ehard, Peggy Achtert, Andreas Dörnbrack, Sonja Gisinger, Jörg Gumbel, Mikhail Khaplanov, Markus Rapp, and Johannes Wagner

meteorological analysis and forecast fields constitute an alternative to mesoscale simulations. For example, Khaykin et al. (2015) combined global-scale temperature analysis with Rayleigh lidar temperature measurements to generate a 7-yr climatology of gravity wave activity. In their study, nighttime means are used to calculate weekly and monthly means. For our study, the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Integrated Forecast System (IFS) could provide hourly vertical temperature

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Tanja C. Portele, Andreas Dörnbrack, Johannes S. Wagner, Sonja Gisinger, Benedikt Ehard, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, and Markus Rapp

analyses valid at 0000, 0600, 1200, and 1800 UTC and 1-hourly high-resolution forecasts at intermediate lead times (+1, +2, +3, +4, +5, +7, +8, +9, +10, and +11 h) of the 0000 and 1200 UTC forecast runs of the Integrated Forecast System (IFS) of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) are further used to visualize the temporal evolution of the upstream conditions at 44.20°S, 167.50°E ( Fig. 1 ). The IFS cycle 40r1 has a horizontal resolution of about 16 km, 137 vertical model

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Stephen D. Eckermann, Jun Ma, Karl W. Hoppel, David D. Kuhl, Douglas R. Allen, James A. Doyle, Kevin C. Viner, Benjamin C. Ruston, Nancy L. Baker, Steven D. Swadley, Timothy R. Whitcomb, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Liang Xu, N. Kaifler, B. Kaifler, Iain M. Reid, Damian J. Murphy, and Peter T. Love

stratosphere up to 2 hPa. See text for additional details. The largest number of assimilated observations in Fig. 6 comes from hyperspectral infrared nadir sensors—Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometers (IASIs) on the European MetOp-A and MetOp-B satellites and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA’s Aqua satellite. NAVGEM assimilated radiances from 51 IASI and 50 AIRS channels in the temperature-sensitive 15- μ m CO 2 band, as well as a smaller selection of channel radiances at 4

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