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Anthony M. DeAngelis, Hailan Wang, Randal D. Koster, Siegfried D. Schubert, Yehui Chang, and Jelena Marshak

Hurk , B. , F. Doblas-Reyes , G. Balsamo , R. D. Koster , S. I. Seneviratne , and H. Camargo Jr ., 2012 : Soil moisture effects on seasonal temperature and precipitation forecast scores in Europe . Climate Dyn. , 38 , 349 – 362 , https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-010-0956-2 . 10.1007/s00382-010-0956-2 Vogel , E. , M. G. Donat , L. V. Alexander , M. Meinshausen , D. K. Ray , D. Karoly , N. Meinshausen , and K. Frieler , 2019 : The effects of climate

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Chul-Su Shin, Paul A. Dirmeyer, Bohua Huang, Subhadeep Halder, and Arun Kumar

relatively faster over Europe, Russia, the southern United States, northwestern Africa, and Australia (left and center columns of Figs. 1c,d ). Fig . 1. Anomaly correlation coefficient maps of weekly mean 2-m air temperature for 1979–2010 from (a) week 1 through (d) week 4 in (left) the CFSR reforecasts, (center) the GLDAS reforecasts, and (right) the GE reforecasts with January initial conditions (ICs). Dashed curves denote 95% confidence level. See the text for more details about the CFSR, GLDAS, and

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Yaling Liu, Dongdong Chen, Soukayna Mouatadid, Xiaoliang Lu, Min Chen, Yu Cheng, Zhenghui Xie, Binghao Jia, Huan Wu, and Pierre Gentine

water demand, and thus SM could also be a crucial factor affecting socioeconomic conditions. Despite the criticality of SM in the Earth system, accurate estimation of large-scale soil moisture is still a challenge, mainly due to its rapid fluctuations and the lack of sufficient ground truth observations. Currently, most large-scale SM products are either retrieved from satellite data or produced from land surface models (LSMs). As an example of product derived from satellites, the European Space

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Shanshui Yuan, Steven M. Quiring, and Chen Zhao

the SPI as a proxy for soil moisture and applied quantile regression to identify the relationship between the SPI and summer temperature extremes in southeastern Europe. Their results indicated that extreme heat tended to intensify over dry soils. Ford et al. (2017) also used the SPI to represent soil moisture deficits and identify the long-term variability of soil moisture–maximum temperature coupling over the continental United States. They found that the strength of land–atmosphere coupling

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Yizhou Zhuang, Amir Erfanian, and Rong Fu

regression models. 2. Data and methodology a. Data We used the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) interim reanalysis (ERAI) ( Dee et al. 2011 ) for the moisture budget analysis described in section 2c . The ERAI reanalysis provides 6-hourly upper-air parameters from 1979 to near-real-time and its data are available online ( http://apps.ecmwf.int/datasets/data/interim-full-daily/levtype=sfc/ ). The atmospheric model has a hybrid sigma-pressure vertical coordinate system with 60

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David M. Mocko, Sujay V. Kumar, Christa D. Peters-Lidard, and Shugong Wang

.2747/1548-1603.45.1.16 De Kauwe , M. G. , S.-X. Zhou , B. E. Medlyn , A. J. Pitman , Y.-P. Wang , R. A. Duursma , and I. C. Prentice , 2015 : Do land surface models need to include differential plant species responses to drought? Examining model predictions across a mesic-xeric gradient in Europe . Biogeosciences , 12 , 7503 – 7518 , https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-12-7503-2015 . 10.5194/bg-12-7503-2015 Dente , L. , G. Satalino , F. Mattia , and F. Rinaldi , 2008 : Assimilation of Leaf

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Chul-Su Shin, Bohua Huang, Paul A. Dirmeyer, Subhadeep Halder, and Arun Kumar

-016-3014-x . 10.1007/s00382-016-3014-x Fischer , E. M. , S. I. Seneviratne , D. Lüthi , and C. Schär , 2007 : The contribution of land-atmosphere coupling to recent European summer heatwaves . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 34 , L06707 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL029068 . 10.1029/2006GL029068 Griffies , S. M. , M. J. Harrison , R. C. Pacanowski , and A. Rosati , 2004 : A technical guide to MOM4. GFDL Ocean Group Tech. Rep. 5, 342 pp. , http://www.gfdl.noaa.gov/*fms . Hao , Z

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