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  • DYNAMO/CINDY/AMIE/LASP: Processes, Dynamics, and Prediction of MJO Initiation x
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Tomoe Nasuno, Tim Li, and Kazuyoshi Kikuchi

). These have been reinforced by observational studies ( Kikuchi and Takayabu 2004 ; Yoneyama et al. 2008 ; Kiladis et al. 2005 ). Zhao et al. (2013) , analyzing boreal winter MJO cases using the 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA), revealed marked increases in lower-tropospheric moisture, temperature, and moist static energy (MSE) over the western Indian Ocean (IO) as a precursor to MJO initiation. Ling et al. (2013) investigated large

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Ji-Hyun Oh, Xianan Jiang, Duane E. Waliser, Mitchell W. Moncrieff, Richard H. Johnson, and Paul Ciesielski

various processes involved in the wind evolution associated with the MJO over the IO during DYNAMO using European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) operational analyses. This study focuses on the zonal momentum budget, since the circulation during MJO life cycle is more noticeable in zonal than meridional winds ( Madden and Julian 1971 ). In addition to the analysis of the momentum budget to shed light on common features of the MJO events in 2011 DYNAMO, the unusual behavior of MJO2 is

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Kai-Chih Tseng, Chung-Hsiung Sui, and Tim Li

in this study. In this study, we calculate a diagnostic moisture budget in the DYNAMO/CINDY sounding array in the Indian Ocean (IO). Instead of using reanalysis data, we use operational data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, which are assimilated with field observations and satellite data during the DYNAMO/CINDY IOP. In section 2 , we describe the data and method utilized in this study. In section 3 , the MJO evolutions from October to December 2011 are discussed

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Yue Ying and Fuqing Zhang

predictability of the tropical weather systems and CCEWs. The first ensemble simulation designed to examine the practical predictability limits starts from 18 October to 2 November (corresponding to the MJO phases 1–3). The IC and LBC ensemble perturbations are sampled from the operational European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) global ensemble forecasts archived in The Observing System Research and Predictability Experiment (THORPEX) Interactive Grand Global Ensemble (TIGGE). 1 The TIGGE

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Jennifer L. Davison

, Seventh European Conf. on Radar in Meteorology and Hydrology (ERAD 2012), Toulouse, France, Météo-France, 13B.1. [Available online at .] Doviak, R. J. , and Zrnić D. S. , 1984 : Doppler Radar and Weather Observations. Academic Press, 458 pp . Hubbert, J. C. , Dixon M. , Ellis S. M. , and Meymaris G. , 2009a : Weather radar ground clutter. Part I: Identification, modeling, and simulation . J. Atmos. Oceanic

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Tim Li, Chongbo Zhao, Pang-chi Hsu, and Tomoe Nasuno

over the WIO and the possible role of high-frequency waves in MJO initiation. A summary is given in the last section. 2. Data and method The primary datasets used for this analysis include 1) daily satellite-observed outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; Liebmann and Smith 1996 ), 2) the Interim European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim; Dee et al. 2011 ), 3) the ECMWF final analysis (FNL), and 4

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Richard H. Johnson, Paul E. Ciesielski, James H. Ruppert Jr., and Masaki Katsumata

on Colombo soundings ( Ciesielski et al. 2014b ). Blockage of the low-level flow by the island terrain frequently disrupts the winds at Colombo below about 2 km. This local effect is aliased onto larger scales and impairs computations of divergence over the NSA. The procedure developed by Ciesielski et al. (2014b) mitigates the impacts of Sri Lanka flow blocking on budgets over the NSA by using European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Operational Analysis (OA) data away from

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Weixin Xu, Steven A. Rutledge, Courtney Schumacher, and Masaki Katsumata

(15°S–15°N, 50°–100°E) to examine the evolution of cold clouds during DYNAMO. Data were provided by the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT). The IR data have a spatial resolution of 5 km with a frequency of 30 min. The area of a cold cloud feature is defined as contiguous areas with a brightness temperature 208 K or colder, which is generally used for representing precipitating area ( Chen et al. 1996 ; Kerns and Chen 2014 ). b. DYNAMO sounding, SST

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Brandon W. Kerns and Shuyi S. Chen

November into early December). As discussed by Yoneyama et al. (2013) and Gottschalck et al. (2013) , two strong, relatively fast, circumnavigating MJO events spaced less than 45 days apart occurred during 17 September–8 December. This second event was MJO-2. The 30-day time scale of these events was relatively short compared with typical MJOs (30–90 days). b. ECMWF analysis To document the large-scale flow patterns and moisture distribution, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF

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Samson M. Hagos, Zhe Feng, Casey D. Burleyson, Chun Zhao, Matus N. Martini, and Larry K. Berg

sounding arrays (multiple sounding sites enclosing an area) were available during AMIE/DYNAMO ( Johnson and Ciesielski 2013 ), they enclosed areas of roughly 8° × 8° that are significantly larger than a single ground-based precipitation radar. Because of the lack of a sounding array that corresponds to the size of the radar domain, the forcing data were developed based on the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) interim reanalysis (ERA-Interim) but constrained with the observed

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