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Kevin E. Trenberth, Lesley Smith, Taotao Qian, Aiguo Dai, and John Fasullo

duration if the amount is the same. Drought appears to have increased substantially globally since the 1970s ( Dai et al. 2004 ) in part because of decreased precipitation over land (mainly in the Tropics and subtropics) but also because of warming and increased atmospheric demand for moisture. Drought has increased especially throughout Africa, southern Asia, the southwestern United States, and the Mediterranean region (both southern Europe and northern Africa), and has also influenced the Amazon

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Richard G. Lawford, John Roads, Dennis P. Lettenmaier, and Phillip Arkin

Satellite (GOES) data improved NCEP forecast products by providing more accurate and comprehensive initial conditions for forecast model runs. Other advances have been made at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), the Japanese Meteorological Agency (JMA), and the German Meteorological Office (GMO) as a result of the use of data products developed through GEWEX research for model initialization and development ( Chahine et al. 2005 ). Reliable monitoring of surface energy and

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Xubin Zeng and Aihui Wang

coverages along with small LAI values as assumed in CLM3 ( Barlage and Zeng 2004 ). For instance, over part of Australia where the average L t is less than 1, the new formulations reduce SH by 7 W m −2 ( Fig. 7b ) and increase T g by 1 K in January (or austral summer; Fig. 7c ), which is similar to that in Fig. 2 for small L t values. Over the eastern United States and part of western Europe, (1) – (3) reduce the winter LH by 5 W m −2 or more ( Fig. 6a ) and increase SH by a similar amount

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Xi Chen, Yongqin David Chen, and Zhicai Zhang

the physical processes of water transfer in a spatially discretized system, and thus offer us a quantitative evaluation of water dynamics. As a result of technological advancements, development of physically based and distributed-parameter models have dominated the field over the past two decades. Several commercially available products such as the Danish Hydraulic Institute’s European Hydrological System’s derivative MIKE SHE ( Refsgaard and Storm 1995 ), the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

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Song Yang, S-H. Yoo, R. Yang, K. E. Mitchell, H. van den Dool, and R. W. Higgins

rainfall during the 1993 midwest summer flood. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 29 . 1865, doi:10.1029/2002GL014815 . Palmer, T. N. , and Coauthors , 2004 : Development of a European multimodel ensemble system for seasonal-to-interannual prediction (DEMETER). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 85 , 853 – 872 . 10.1175/BAMS-85-6-853 Qu, W. , and Coauthors , 1998 : Sensitivity of latent heat flux from PILPS land-surface schemes to perturbations of surface air temperature. J. Atmos. Sci. , 55 , 1909

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Guoxiong Wu, Yimin Liu, Qiong Zhang, Anmin Duan, Tongmei Wang, Rijin Wan, Xin Liu, Weiping Li, Zaizhi Wang, and Xiaoyun Liang

employed the global analyses prepared by the European Centre for Medium-Range Forecasts (ECMWF) to study the onset and interannual variability of the Asian summer monsoon in relation to land–sea thermal contrast ( Li and Yanai 1996 ), the Australian summer monsoon ( Hung and Yanai 2004 ), and its relationship with the Asian summer monsoons ( Hung et al. 2004 ). In China, in the last decade, a series of research programs have been organized to support the activities related to the World Climate Research

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