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Leo J. Donner, Bruce L. Wyman, Richard S. Hemler, Larry W. Horowitz, Yi Ming, Ming Zhao, Jean-Christophe Golaz, Paul Ginoux, S.-J. Lin, M. Daniel Schwarzkopf, John Austin, Ghassan Alaka, William F. Cooke, Thomas L. Delworth, Stuart M. Freidenreich, C. T. Gordon, Stephen M. Griffies, Isaac M. Held, William J. Hurlin, Stephen A. Klein, Thomas R. Knutson, Amy R. Langenhorst, Hyun-Chul Lee, Yanluan Lin, Brian I. Magi, Sergey L. Malyshev, P. C. D. Milly, Vaishali Naik, Mary J. Nath, Robert Pincus, Jeffrey J. Ploshay, V. Ramaswamy, Charles J. Seman, Elena Shevliakova, Joseph J. Sirutis, William F. Stern, Ronald J. Stouffer, R. John Wilson, Michael Winton, Andrew T. Wittenberg, and Fanrong Zeng

southern Europe. AM3 exhibits negative biases in the tropical Indian and western Pacific Oceans, where excessive cloudiness and precipitation occur. Positive biases characterize the oceans off the subtropical west coasts of Africa, South America, and North America where marine stratocumulus is inadequate. Problematic marine stratocumulus persists from AM2 ( Anderson et al. 2004 ), perhaps not surprisingly, given that the parameterizations for boundary layers and cloud macrophysics have not been changed

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Jean-Christophe Golaz, Marc Salzmann, Leo J. Donner, Larry W. Horowitz, Yi Ming, and Ming Zhao

better than alternate configurations S1, S2, and S3, although scores often differ only very slightly. Table 3. Summary of root-mean-square error (rmse) and correlation (corr) between model configurations and various observations. Sea level pressure (SLP), and 200- and 850-hPa zonal wind (U200, U850) are compared to 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Re-Analyses (ERA-40s) ( Uppala et al. 2005 ); precipitation is compared to GPCP v2 ( Adler et al. 2003 ); shortwave and longwave

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Stephen M. Griffies, Michael Winton, Leo J. Donner, Larry W. Horowitz, Stephanie M. Downes, Riccardo Farneti, Anand Gnanadesikan, William J. Hurlin, Hyun-Chul Lee, Zhi Liang, Jaime B. Palter, Bonita L. Samuels, Andrew T. Wittenberg, Bruce L. Wyman, Jianjun Yin, and Niki Zadeh

–2000. Observational estimates are also shown in all figures from in situ measurements analyzed by Ganachaud and Wunsch (2003) and the reanalysis estimates from Trenberth and Caron (2001) (using the period February 1985 to April 1989) from both the NCEP–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) ( Kalnay et al. 1996 ) reanalysis and the 40-yr European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts reanalysis (ERA-40), Uppala et al. 2005 ). Note the different scales for the vertical axes in each basin. In the

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