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Sante Laviola, Agata Moscatello, Mario Marcello Miglietta, Elsa Cattani, and Vincenzo Levizzani

Mediterranean basin. The Alps are responsible for such deflections for the Northern Atlantic systems and the Atlas Mountains for the southern ones. These systems transit over the warm Mediterranean and western Europe, and find favorable conditions for cyclogenesis over the Western Mediterranean ( Buzzi and Tibaldi 1978 ). Also, Mediterranean disturbances frequently develop as a consequence of the interaction of an unusually deep upper-tropospheric trough and cold air with the relative warmth of the sea

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Shizuo Suzuki, Masayuki Yokozawa, Kazuyuki Inubushi, Toshihiko Hara, Michitoshi Kimura, Shoichi Tsuga, Yasuhiro Tako, and Yuji Nakamura

marshes ( Brix 1999 ). Throughout the twentieth century, the distribution of the species was enlarged and P. australis was reported in all of the lower 48 U.S. states and across southern Canada ( Chambers et al. 1999 ; Saltonstall 2002 ). The species is regarded as an aggressive invader in North America ( Chambers et al. 1999 ; Rice et al. 2000 ). On the other hand, in Europe, the balance between the progression and regression of the species has recently shifted toward a process of die back

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Akihiko Ito and Motoko Inatomi

China, Hu et al. (2010) showed that dryer grasslands exhibited lower precipitation-use efficiency (defined as above-ground NPP/precipitation). Beer et al. (2007) estimated the distribution of WUE (defined as GPP/AET) for Europe, and they found a latitudinal gradient, with higher values in northern Europe and lower values in the Mediterranean region. These spatial gradients were largely captured by the WUE gradient based on NPP in this study. Table 2. Observed water-use efficiencies in various

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Paul A. Dirmeyer

Radiometer (SMMR) orbital instruments have also been used to infer surface soil wetness (e.g., Paloscia et al. 2001 ). Data from active microwave sensors from European Remote Sensing (ERS) scatterometers have been used to create an index of soil wetness ( Wagner et al. 1999 ) that correlates well with in situ observations (e.g., Dirmeyer et al. 2004 ). Aircraft-borne passive-microwave sensors (e.g., Jackson et al. 2002 ), ground-based sensors ( de Rosnay et al. 2006 ), and Tropical Rainfall Measuring

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Dai Matsushima, Reiji Kimura, and Masato Shinoda

. , 123 , 221 – 236 . Verstraeten, W. W. , Veroustraete F. , van der Sande C. J. , Grootaers I. , and Feyen J. , 2006 : Soil moisture retrieval using thermal inertia, determined with visible and thermal spaceborne data, validated for European forests . Remote Sens. Environ. , 101 , 299 – 314 . Wang, K. C. , Li Z. Q. , and Cribb M. , 2006 : Estimation of evaporative fraction from a combination of day and night land surface temperatures and NDVI: A new method to determine the

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Yadu Pokhrel, Naota Hanasaki, Sujan Koirala, Jaeil Cho, Pat J.-F. Yeh, Hyungjun Kim, Shinjiro Kanae, and Taikan Oki

studies, which affect irrigation water requirement. Fig . 5. Irrigation-induced changes in seasonal (DJF, MAM, JJA, and SON) latent heat flux (W m −2 ) per grid cell averaged over the period 1983–2007. White color indicates grid cells with no irrigated croplands. In the modestly irrigated areas in South America, Australia, Europe, and the southern part of Africa, irrigation causes only a small change in surface energy balance. In Southeast Asia and the eastern part of China, unlike the large change in

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Minseok Kang, Hyojung Kwon, Jung Hwa Cheon, and Joon Kim

7-year period (1998–2006) . Agric. For. Meteor. , 148 , 1941 – 1953 . Oliphant, A. J. , and Coauthors , 2004 : Heat storage and energy balance fluxes for a temperate deciduous forest . Agric. For. Meteor. , 126 , 185 – 201 . Papale, D. , and Valentini R. , 2003 : A new assessment of European forests carbon exchanges by eddy fluxes and artificial neural network spatialization . Global Change Biol. , 9 , 525 – 535 . Papale, D. , and Coauthors , 2006 : Towards a standardized

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