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Monica Górska, Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, Margaret A. LeMone, and Chiel C. van Heerwaarden

during the European Union’s Regional Assessment and Monitoring of the Carbon Balance within Europe (RECAB-02) project, in which the aircraft tracks were flown repeatedly at three levels in the ABL. Compared to the previous studies, our obtained aircraft value, β θ υ ≈ 0, is relatively small, but higher aircraft legs in the entrainment zone are missing in order to obtain a better estimation using this extrapolation method. Previous LES studies ( vanZanten et al. 1999 ; Pino et al. 2003 ; Conzemius

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F. Couvreux, F. Guichard, P. H. Austin, and F. Chen

in the mean PW for June 2002 computed from the 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-40), with values lower than 30 kg m −2 west of 101°W, and a maximum located on the southeastern part of the domain with values greater than 34 kg m −2 . A similar gradient characterizes the mean PW over the area in June from 1992 to 2002 ( Fig. 8c ). There are, however, day-to-day departures from climatology. From 1992 to 2002, on average, 4 days in June were

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John R. Mecikalski, Kristopher M. Bedka, Simon J. Paech, and Leslie A. Litten

readily be obtained from operational numerical weather prediction models. Performing analysis using geostationary and polar-orbiting satellites, with IR sensors that possess more channels than GOES, is also occurring. For example, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the European Spinning Enhanced Visible and infrared Imager (SEVIRI) on the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG; Meteosat-8 and Meteosat-9 ) instrument possess 37 and 12 channels, respectively. Using SEVIRI data

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John H. Marsham, Stanley B. Trier, Tammy M. Weckwerth, and James W. Wilson

-relative winds throughout the paper. Radiosonde sites are shown by plus signs in Fig. 1 . Data from the Oklahoma mesonet ( Brock et al. 1995 ; McPherson et al. 2007 ) were used to provide 5-min means of air temperature (at heights of 1.75 and 9 m), humidity (at 1.5 m), wind speed (at 2 and 10 m), wind direction (at 10 m), rainfall, and air pressure. One-degree gridded operational analyses from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) were also used, together with 11- μ m infrared

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