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Sarah Ringerud, Christa Peters-Lidard, Joe Munchak, and Yalei You

et al. 2011 ). Even with a screening system in place, the GPM GPROF algorithm tends to greatly overestimate light precipitation as a result of false alarms. Kidd et al. (2018) show relatively high false alarms from all GPROF products as compared to surface radar and gauges, for both the continental United States and Europe. In this work, we explore a hybrid method, using output from an optimal estimation (OE) retrieval similar in basis to the MiRS 1DVAR first pass, as a first step to screen for

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Lisa Milani, Mark S. Kulie, Daniele Casella, Pierre E. Kirstetter, Giulia Panegrossi, Veljko Petkovic, Sarah E. Ringerud, Jean-François Rysman, Paolo Sanò, Nai-Yu Wang, Yalei You, and Gail Skofronick-Jackson

waters, coastlines, and sea ice edge. These classes come from a cluster analysis, purely empirical self-grouping of emissivity characteristics ( Prigent et al. 2006 ). The TPW and T2m parameters are obtained from the Global Atmospheric Analysis (GANAL; JMA 2000 ) and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts ( Dee et al. 2011 ) reanalysis datasets for the operational and the climatological GPROF outputs, respectively. For this study, the 1C-R-GMI product (TBs) and the climatological 2A

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Chandra Rupa Rajulapati, Simon Michael Papalexiou, Martyn P. Clark, Saman Razavi, Guoqiang Tang, and John W. Pomeroy

; Sorooshian et al. 2014 ). MSWEP v2.0 assimilates the ERA-Interim and JRA-55 reanalyses products as well as gauge [WorldClim, Global Historical Climatology Network Daily (GHCN-Daily), GPCC, CPC, and others] and satellite data (CMORPH, GridSat, GSMaP, and TMPA 3B42RT) ( Beck et al. 2017 , 2019 ). WFDEI is derived using the methodology of WATCH forcing data [based on the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA-40 reanalysis with sequential elevation correction of meteorological

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Clément Guilloteau and Efi Foufoula-Georgiou

-Frequency Precipitation Radar ECMWF European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts ERA ECMWF Re-Analysis GCOM-W1 Global Change Observation Mission–Water GMI GPM Microwave Imager GPM Global Precipitation Measurement GPROF Goddard profiling algorithm GSMaP-MVK Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation with Moving Vectors and Kalman filtering IMERG Integrated Multisatellite Retrievals for GPM KuPR Ku Precipitation Radar MHS Microwave Humidity Sounder NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration SAPHIR Sondeur

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Veljko Petković, Marko Orescanin, Pierre Kirstetter, Christian Kummerow, and Ralph Ferraro

Microwave Sounder API Application programming interface BB Bright band DNN Deep neural network DPR Dual-frequency precipitation radar ECMWF European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts FOV Field of view GANAL Global analysis GLM Geostationary Lightning Mapper GMI GPM Microwave Imager GPM Global Precipitation Measurement GPROF Goddard profiling algorithm GV-MRMS Ground Validation–Multi Radar/Multi Sensor HSS Heidke skill score IR Infrared JMA Japan Meteorological Agency MHS Microwave Humidity

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Stephen E. Lang and Wei-Kuo Tao

.1175/JAM2369.1 . 10.1175/JAM2369.1 Pirret , J. , P. Knippertz , and T. M. Trzeciak , 2017 : Drivers for the deepening of severe European windstorms and their impacts on forecast quality . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 143 , 309 – 320 , https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.2923 . 10.1002/qj.2923 Riehl , H. , and J. S. Malkus , 1958 : On the heat balance in the equatorial trough zone . Geophysica , 6 , 503 – 538 . Roux , F. , 1985 : Retrieval of thermodynamic fields from multiple

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Zhe Li, Daniel B. Wright, Sara Q. Zhang, Dalia B. Kirschbaum, and Samantha H. Hartke

produced by the model’s dynamical equations and parameterizations, which are constrained through the assimilation of satellite radiances ( Benjamin et al. 2019 ). Hence, we refer to this as the “physics-based” approach. A number of datasets, particularly reanalyses such as the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, version 2 (MERRA-2; Gelaro et al. 2017 ) from NASA and ERA5 ( Hersbach et al. 2018 ) from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts assimilate PMW TBs

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Samantha H. Hartke, Daniel B. Wright, Dalia B. Kirschbaum, Thomas A. Stanley, and Zhe Li

landslides in central and southern Europe . Meteor. Atmos. Phys. , 98 , 239 – 267 , https://doi.org/10.1007/s00703-007-0262-7 . 10.1007/s00703-007-0262-7 Hong , Y. , R. Adler , and G. Huffman , 2006 : Evaluation of the potential of NASA multi-satellite precipitation analysis in global landslide hazard assessment . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 33 , L22402 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL028010 . 10.1029/2006GL028010 Hong , Y. , R. Adler , and G. Huffman , 2007 : Use of satellite remote

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