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Alan J. Geer, Peter Bauer, and Christopher W. O’Dell

satellite observations (e.g., Kummerow 1998 ). Here, even when two fields of view contain the same mass of rain or cloud, variations in fractional cloudiness can cause large differences in measured radiances. Rain- and cloud-affected microwave radiances are assimilated at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF; Bauer et al. 2006a , b ), improving forecasts of tropical moisture and wind ( Kelly et al. 2008 ). However, large biases between simulated and observed brightness

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Frank S. Marzano, Domenico Cimini, Tommaso Rossi, Daniele Mortari, Sabatino Di Michele, and Peter Bauer

the Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) aboard the CloudSat satellite. Planned major programs to extend this capability are linked to the American National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS), whose first satellite is to be launched in 2013 and that carries the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) and as of 2016 the Microwave Imager Sounder (MIS), and the Post European Polar System (PostEPS), to be launched in 2020 and carrying a microwave imager and sounder that

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Meike Kühnlein, Boris Thies, Thomas Nauß, and Jörg Bendix

northern part of Germany. Afterward, the southwestern currents of Cyclone Dörthe transported warm air masses over Germany. A height trough over western Europe caused the warm air masses to rise, leading to strong shower activities. In the last week, the investigation area was dominated by Cyclone Florence ( Berliner Wetterkarte 2006 ). 2) Weather in the first validation period: 19–26 October 2005 Between 19 and 26 October 2005, the study area was dominated by Atlantic cyclones. The highest rainfall

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Zhong Liu, Hualan Rui, William Teng, Long Chiu, Gregory Leptoukh, and Steven Kempler

large areas, such as Australia, the United States, western Europe, South America, and so on, and do not adequately address similar issues at a local or regional scale. Environmental conditions, such as land surface types, topography, and precipitation regimes, vary from region to region. Further, existing static Web services do not provide interactive and customized services. Is there an easier way for users to evaluate precipitation products and accelerate the process from research to applications

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Cristian Mitrescu, Tristan L’Ecuyer, John Haynes, Steven Miller, and Joseph Turk

numerical model runs (produced operationally at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) are also used to flag the precipitation phase. To keep consistency between the present profiling algorithm and that developed by Haynes et al. (2009) , we adopt all the tests and thresholds defined within. More details about these two precipitation techniques can be downloaded from the Data Processing Center at Colorado State University ( http://CloudSat.cira.colostate.edu/dataSpecs.php ). Given the

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Axel Andersson, Christian Klepp, Karsten Fennig, Stephan Bakan, Hartmut Grassl, and Jörg Schulz

(2007) state that this is a highly required but difficult task, as differently calibrated time series and inhomogeneous data sources have to be combined while there is no comprehensive in situ validation data available. Alternatively, reanalysis datasets, such as the 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-40; Uppala et al. 2005 ) and ERA-Interim (ERA-Int; Simmons et al. 2007 ), National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) NCEP-1 ( Kalnay et al

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Mark S. Kulie and Ralf Bennartz

sensitivity studies of assumed frozen particle backscattering properties and data selection criteria, are provided in section 4 . Concluding remarks are given in section 5 . 2. Data CloudSat CPR radar reflectivity factor (hereinafter referred to as “radar reflectivity” or simply “reflectivity”) fields from the official CloudSat 2B-Geometric Profile (GEOPROF) product ( Mace 2007 ), combined with temperature data from the CloudSat European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF

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J. J. Shi, W-K. Tao, T. Matsui, R. Cifelli, A. Hou, S. Lang, A. Tokay, N-Y. Wang, C. Peters-Lidard, G. Skofronick-Jackson, S. Rutledge, and W. Petersen

, 2005 : A climatology of snow-to-liquid ratio for the contiguous United States. Wea. Forecasting , 20 , 729 – 744 . Bringi , V. N. , G-J. Huang , D. Hudak , R. Cifelli , and S. Rutledge , 2008 : A methodology to derive radar reflectivity–liquid equivalent snow rate relations using C-band radar and a 2D video disdrometer. Extended Abstracts, Fifth European Conf. on Radar in Meteorology and Hydrology, Helsinki, Finland, Finnish Meteorological Institute. [Available online at

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Rémy Roca, Philippe Chambon, Isabelle Jobard, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, Marielle Gosset, and Jean Claude Bergès

acknowledged. We are grateful to Dr. B. C. Kelly for making his IDL fitting routine available. Based on a French initiative AMMA was built by an international scientific group and is currently funded by a large number of agencies, especially from France, United Kingdom, United States, and Africa. It has been the beneficiary of a major financial contribution from the European Community’s Sixth Framework Research Programme. REFERENCES Ali , A. , and T. Lebel , 2008 : The Sahelian standardized rainfall

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