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Chris Kidd, Toshihisa Matsui, Jiundar Chern, Karen Mohr, Chris Kummerow, and Dave Randel

representation of echo-top height distributions. Background meteorology. The free-running mode of long-term MMF (and any climate model) simulations often causes internal climate drift because of biases in the physics schemes and their interactions. For the production of the database, the background meteorology should be as close as possible to the observation. Consequently, the mean meteorological fields of the MMF simulation were nudged using the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF

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Yiwen Mei, Efthymios I. Nikolopoulos, Emmanouil N. Anagnostou, and Marco Borga

included gauges ( Wilk et al. 2006 ; Gourley et al. 2011 ). Gauge adjustment can be considered as qualified over densely gauged areas (e.g., continental United States or parts of western Europe). On the other hand, this adjustment may introduce unrealistic features in the precipitation products, particularly in areas exhibiting strong precipitation gradients. Regarding the patterns of error propagation, a nonlinear error transformation process is prevailing among the hydrologic studies; that is, the

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Ali Behrangi, Bin Guan, Paul J. Neiman, Mathias Schreier, and Bjorn Lambrigtsen

western United States were broken by the arrival of ARs ( Dettinger 2013 ), with the highest and lowest percent observed in Washington and southern coastal California, respectively. Similar hydrological importance of ARs has been indicated by studies focusing on Europe ( Stohl et al. 2008 ; Lavers and Villarini 2013 ) and South America ( Viale and Nuñez 2011 ). Together, these studies suggest the need to better observe and understand ARs and their impacts. ARs are typically formed over midlatitude

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Mark S. Kulie, Lisa Milani, Norman B. Wood, Samantha A. Tushaus, Ralf Bennartz, and Tristan S. L’Ecuyer

“radar reflectivity” or “reflectivity” for brevity) profiles with 240-m grid spacing in the CloudSat data products. The following level 2 products (release R04) are used in this study: 2B-Geometric Profile (2B-GEOPROF), 2C-Snow Water Content and Snowfall Rate (2C-SNOW-PROFILE), 2B-Cloud Scenario Classification (2B-CLDCLASS), 2C-Precipitation Column (2C-PRECIP-COLUMN), and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts–Auxiliary (ECMWF-AUX). The aforementioned products are orbital swath products

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E. Cattani, A. Merino, and V. Levizzani

increase of MAE and RMSE and a general overestimation of the precipitation intensity. Thus, one more key issue to consider is the need for additional information on the dependence between SPE and elevation for the necessary improvement of the ability of the algorithms to better catch the orographic precipitation enhancement. Acknowledgments This study was supported by the European Union’s Seventh Programme for research, technological development, and demonstration under Grant Agreements 26225 (GLOWASIS

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F. Joseph Turk, R. Sikhakolli, P. Kirstetter, and S. L. Durden

dependent terrestrial signatures will be required to contrast any change in OSCAT due to precipitation-related effects. The overland azimuth viewing angle dependence of land targets has been examined by ( Bartalis et al. 2006 ), using European Remote Sensing (ERS) scatterometer observations, a fan-beam system that transmits three fixed-angle beams pointing in different directions relative to the spacecraft motion. They found the azimuthal asymmetry to be over 2 dB in urban and agricultural areas. One

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Toshi Matsui, Jiun-Dar Chern, Wei-Kuo Tao, Stephen Lang, Masaki Satoh, Tempei Hashino, and Takuji Kubota

. 2009 , 2014 ). The MMF uses the Community Land Model (CLM; Bonan et al. 2002 ) to predict the land surface turbulent heat flux and skin temperature in each GEOS4 grid. The MMF was initialized with European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) interim reanalysis (ERA-Interim; Dee et al. 2011 ) and integrated over the entire month of June 2008. NICAM was developed to study the capabilities of fully 3D global CRMs ( Tomita and Satoh 2004 ; Satoh et al. 2008 , 2014 ). The NICAM

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