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V. Bellantone, I. Carofalo, F. De Tomasi, M. R. Perrone, M. Santese, A. M. Tafuro, and A. Turnone

, such as lidars and radiometers, are generally used to characterize the aerosol load above ground level. Furthermore, it is very important to perform these measurements in a global way, to cover wide regions and possibly the whole world. This can only be done by networks of instruments such as the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET; Matthias et al. 2004a ) and the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET; Holben et al. 1998 ) or satellite-based instruments ( Kaufman et al. 2002 ). Remote

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Ulrich Löhnert, S. Crewell, O. Krasnov, E. O’Connor, and H. Russchenberg

the cloud is attenuated and no radar-to-lidar ratio Z/α is available, Z thresholds (−35 and −20 dBZ) are used to determine the water cloud category. These thresholds are derived from simultaneous cloud measurements of radar and lidar with known lidar optical extinction using the extensive CloudNet database archive from the four European sites: Cabauw (Netherlands), Chilbolton (United Kingdom), Palaiseau (France), and Lindenberg (Germany). Once the water cloud category has been identified via

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Matthias Grzeschik, Hans-Stefan Bauer, Volker Wulfmeyer, Dirk Engelbart, Ulla Wandinger, Ina Mattis, Dietrich Althausen, Ronny Engelmann, Matthias Tesche, and Andrea Riede

vapor observations on mesoscale weather forecasting. During LAUNCH, what is to our knowledge the first time, a network of 13 water vapor Raman lidar systems was operated in an area covering central Europe so that their impact over a larger domain could be investigated by means of observing system experiments (OSEs). As Raman lidar systems have especially high vertical resolution and accuracy, they are expected to be well-suited as basis for future ground-based networks, which is one of the subjects

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Ronny Engelmann, Ulla Wandinger, Albert Ansmann, Detlef Müller, Egidijus Žeromskis, Dietrich Althausen, and Birgit Wehner

development during daytime between 0930 and 1730 UTC (1030 and 1830 LT, central European time). The range-corrected signal of the 532-nm analog channel in the Raman lidar and the vertical wind speed show very good correlations. Thermal updraft regions (yellow and red) can be clearly distinguished from downward mixing processes (dark green). Figure 3 shows profiles of temperature, potential temperature, relative humidity, and water vapor mixing ratio obtained with radiosondes launched at the IfT site

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Daniela Nowak, Dominique Ruffieux, Judith L. Agnew, and Laurent Vuilleumier

resolution with a reasonable cost, which would allow deployment at additional meteorological stations in Europe or over the world. They can give valuable information for the understanding of the development of clouds, help establishing cloud climatology, and improve the analysis of cloud–radiation interaction. Protat et al. (2006) showed that in order to evaluate the representation of clouds in operational models, the use of both a cloud radar and a lidar is imperative. The sampling should be regular

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Eduardo Landulfo, Alexandros Papayannis, Ani Sobral Torres, Sandro Toshio Uehara, Lucila Maria Viola Pozzetti, Caio Alencar de Matos, Patricia Sawamura, Walter Morinobu Nakaema, and Wellington de Jesus

suspended aerosol particles as a subject of continuous interest because of the ongoing expansion of the metropolitan area, which carries over 15 000 industries. The study of aerosols in such an environment is not only crucial but very important in assessing the local and regional impact on climate and population health. Aerosol data from these geographical locations in the Southern Hemisphere are not as abundant as in Europe, North America, and northern Asia. Among the several means to measure the

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P. C. S. Devara, P. E. Raj, K. K. Dani, G. Pandithurai, M. C. R. Kalapureddy, S. M. Sonbawne, Y. J. Rao, and S. K. Saha

. Proc. 22nd Int. Laser Radar Conf. (ILRC), Matera, Italy, European Space Agency, 631–634 . Houghton, J. T. , Ding Y. , Griggs D. J. , Noguer M. , van der Linden P. J. , Dai X. , Maskell K. , and Johnson C. A. , 2001 : Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis . Cambridge University Press, 881 pp . Kamineni, R. , Krishnamurti T. N. , Ferrare R. A. , Ismail S. , and Browell E. V. , 2003 : Impact of high-resolution water vapor cross-sectional data on hurricane forecasting

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