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M. A. Nelson, E. R. Pardyjak, J. C. Klewicki, S. U. Pol, and M. J. Brown

flow and larger magnitudes, both positive and negative, are found in the intersections. In a more idealized street canyon, one would typically expect a helical vortex (the superposition of along-canyon channeling with the along-canyon vortex) to form in the canyon as was observed by Eliasson et al. (2006) . They found that, in a European-style city (where the building heights tend to be much more homogeneous), flow within 60° of perpendicular to the canyon axis produces a single helical vortex in

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Steve R. Diehl, Donald A. Burrows, Eric A. Hendricks, and Robert Keith

case as described by Cowan et al. (1997) and by Castro et al. (1999) . Project EMU was a study funded by the European Union to assess CFD solution variability. For case A1, an L-shaped building with an inner side door was placed in a boundary layer flow with a surface roughness z 0 of 0.12 m. Although the model was tested at 1/200 scale, only full-scale values will be given here. As shown in Fig. 6 , the full-scale building was 10 m in height with the wind direction head on toward the long

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M. A. Nelson, E. R. Pardyjak, M. J. Brown, and J. C. Klewicki

potential to advect vortices shed from the roofs of the buildings on the upwind side of the canyon down into the canyon interior (for the southeasterly case). This hypothesis is supported by the results Eliasson et al. (2006) , who found that eddies frequently penetrate the shear layer at the top of a European street canyon, which has more or less uniform building heights, disturbing the typical street canyon flow patterns. In the case of a North American–style street canyon such as PA, with

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P. Ramamurthy, E. R. Pardyjak, and J. C. Klewicki

Experiment ( Mestayer et al. 2005 ), and a street canyon study in Göteborg, Sweden ( Eliasson et al. 2006 )—have been undertaken in Europe. These experiments have added tremendous insight into the appropriate use of measuring techniques in urban areas while also improving the general understanding of basic urban transport physics. The Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) atmospheric dispersion study is the most recent dispersion experiment in a series of cooperative multiagency–multiuniversity full- and near

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