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Ana M. B. Nunes and John O. Roads

layer ( Kanamitsu et al. 2003 ). 2.3.1.2. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts reanalysis The 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis project (ERA-40) ( Simmons and Gibson 2000 ) was used as an independent dataset to evaluate the ECPC-RSM results. The ERA-40 analysis methodology allows the direct use of nonconventional data such as those provided through satellite measurements. ERA-40 uses a spectral global forecast model with triangular truncation

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Andrew J. Elmore, Gregory P. Asner, and R. Flint Hughes

basaltic parent material. The term “substrate” will be used in this paper to refer to both young basaltic flows (rock surfaces) and well-developed soil surfaces. Plant communities of the arid to mesic environments on the leeward side of Hawaii were once defined by a small number of native tree species. These include Metrosideros polymorpha (ohia) and Acacia Koa (koa). However, African grasses were introduced to Hawaii for grazing purposes following European contact in 1778, and these grasses have

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Tomas F. Domingues, Joseph A. Berry, Luiz A. Martinelli, Jean P. H. B. Ometto, and James R. Ehleringer

. W. Kicklighter , A. D. McGuire , J. V. K. Helfrich III , B. Moore III , and C. J. Vörösmarty . 1998 . Effect of interannual climate variability on carbon storage in Amazonian ecosystems. Nature 396 : 664 – 667 . Valentini , R. Coauthors 2000 . Respiration as the main determinant of carbon balance in European forests. Nature 404 : 861 – 865 . Vieira , S. Coauthors 2004 . Forest structure and carbon dynamics in Amazonian tropical rain forests. Oecologia

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