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G. Strandberg and E. Kjellström

climate models (RCMs) enables studies of local effects. RCMs improve the representation of regional-scale climate features (e.g., Rummukainen 2010 ). For future climates, the effects of afforestation have been studied with RCMs in Europe (e.g., Wramneby et al. 2010 ; Gálos et al. 2012 ), North America (e.g., Alexandru and Sushama 2016 ), Africa (e.g., Wu et al. 2016 ), and South America (e.g., Wu et al. 2017 ). The main finding is that the climate mitigation benefits of afforestation (due to CO

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Weiyue Zhang, Zhongfeng Xu, and Weidong Guo

as Europe and North America, LULCC can result in a surface temperature cooling of 1° to 2°C primarily because of the increased land surface albedo ( Brovkin et al. 1999 ; Betts et al. 2007 ; Oleson et al. 2004 ; Bala et al. 2007 ; Davin and de Noblet-Ducoudré 2010 ; de Noblet-Ducoudré et al. 2012 ). Lawrence and Chase (2010) found that land-cover change results in a widespread regional warming and drying of the near-surface atmosphere but has a limited global influence on near

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Edward Armstrong, Paul Valdes, Jo House, and Joy Singarayer

. Each simulation was run for 300 years with and without LUC (suffix: LU). Analysis is on the final 50 years of each run; all anomalies are 99% significant as calculated by a Student’s t test. 3. Results 3.1. Impact of LUC at increasing CO 2 concentrations Temperature and precipitation anomalies due to the biogeophysical effects of LUC for Northern Hemisphere summer [June–August (JJA)] are shown in Figure 3 . Mean annual, JJA, and NH winter [December–February (DJF)] anomalies are shown for Europe

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Soumaya Belmecheri, Flurin Babst, Amy R. Hudson, Julio Betancourt, and Valerie Trouet

Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR, 1948–present) and/or 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-40; 1958–present; e.g., Archer and Caldeira 2008 ; Archer and Caldeira 2009 ; Bals-Elsholz et al. 2001 ; Ellis and Barton 2012 ; Gallego et al. 2005 ; Kuang et al. 2014 ; Peña-Ortiz et al. 2013 ; Strong and Davis 2005 ; Woollings et al. 2010 ). From this reanalysis dataset, wind speed values at 200, 300, or

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A L. Hirsch, A. J. Pitman, J. Kala, R. Lorenz, and M. G. Donat

the Australian continent for several reasons. First, the Australian continent is a likely land–atmosphere coupling hotspot ( Hirsch et al. 2014b ; Lorenz et al. 2015 ), and we focus on temperature extremes as Hirsch et al. (2014b) found a spatially coherent signal in soil moisture–temperature coupling. Second, the Australian continent has experienced significant LUC since European settlement [ Australian Surveying and Land Information Group (AUSLIG) 1990 ]. Finally, Australia has a wide range

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Andres Schmidt, Beverly E. Law, Mathias Göckede, Chad Hanson, Zhenlin Yang, and Stephen Conley

covariance fluxes from an enclosed gas analyzer using an instantaneous mixing ratio . Global Change Biol. , 18 , 385 – 399 , doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02536.x . Carouge , C. , P. J. Rayner , P. Peylin , P. Bousquet , F. Chevallier , and P. Ciais , 2010 : What can we learn from European continuous atmospheric CO 2 measurements to quantify regional fluxes—Part 2: Sensitivity of flux accuracy to inverse setup . Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 10 , 3119 – 3129 , doi: 10.5194/acp-10

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Yaqian He and Eungul Lee

. New , 2004 : A comprehensive set of high-resolution grids of monthly climate for Europe and the globe: The observed record (1901–2000) and 16 scenarios (2001–2100). Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research Working Paper 55, 30 pp. [Available online at http://ipcc-data.org/docs/tyndall_working_papers_wp55.pdf .] Mohino , E. , S. Janicot , and J. Bader , 2011 : Sahel rainfall and decadal to multi-decadal sea surface temperature variability . Climate Dyn. , 37 , 419 – 440 , doi: 10

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Jean-Sébastien Landry, Navin Ramankutty, and Lael Parrott

, 2003 : Evaluation of ecosystem dynamics, plant geography and terrestrial carbon cycling in the LPJ dynamic global vegetation model . Global Change Biol. , 9 , 161 – 185 , doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2486.2003.00569.x . Smith , B. , I. C. Prentice , and M. T. Sykes , 2001 : Representation of vegetation dynamics in the modelling of terrestrial ecosystems: Comparing two contrasting approaches within European climate space . Global Ecol. Biogeogr. , 10 , 621 – 637 , doi: 10.1046/j.1466-822X

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Keith J. Harding, Tracy E. Twine, and Yaqiong Lu

. , Y. Fan , B. R. Lintner , and C. P. Weaver , 2015 : Observational evidence that Great Plains irrigation has enhanced summer precipitation intensity and totals in the midwestern United States . J. Hydrometeor. , 16 , 1717–1735 , doi: 10.1175/JHM-D-14-0115.1 . aus der Beek , T. , M. Flörke , D. Lapola , R. Schaldach , F. Voß , and E. Teichert , 2010 : Modelling historical and current irrigation water demand on the continental scale: Europe. Adv. Geosci. , 27 , 79

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