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Jeffrey D. Massey, W. James Steenburgh, Jason C. Knievel, and William Y. Y. Cheng

observed throughout the world including over the European Alps ( García-Díez et al. 2013 ) and the continental United States ( Wyszogrodzki et al. 2013 ). Over the interior western United States, several studies identify an underprediction of the 2-m diurnal temperature range (DTR) with a warm (i.e., positive) 2-m temperature bias at night and in the early morning and a cold (i.e., negative) 2-m temperature bias in the afternoon. These biases, which are frequently >1°C, are found for a wide range of

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Raquel Lorente-Plazas and Joshua P. Hacker

system . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 126 , 2287 – 2299 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(1998)126<2287:TUOTCC>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0493(1998)126<2287:TUOTCC>2.0.CO;2 Eyre , J. R. , 1992 : A bias correction scheme for simulated TOVS brightness temperatures. Tech. Memo. 186, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, 34 pp. [Available online at https://www.ecmwf.int/sites/default/files/elibrary/1992/9330-bias-correction-scheme-simulated-tovs-brightness-temperatures.pdf .] Eyre , J. R. , 2016

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Manuela Lehner, C. David Whiteman, Sebastian W. Hoch, Derek Jensen, Eric R. Pardyjak, Laura S. Leo, Silvana Di Sabatino, and Harindra J. S. Fernando

. Charland and B. Blaylock assisted with tethersonde ascents, and M. Jeglum helped with data access. Further, we thank three anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments on the manuscript. ERA-Interim data were obtained through the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts data archive. REFERENCES Barr , S. , and M. M. Orgill , 1989 : Influence of external meteorology on nocturnal valley drainage winds . J. Appl. Meteor. , 28 , 497 – 517 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0450(1989)028<0497:IOEMON>2

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Jeffrey D. Massey, W. James Steenburgh, Sebastian W. Hoch, and Derek D. Jensen

observed SEB components over the Svalbard Archipelago in the Arctic Ocean north of Europe, identifying overpredictions of R n and the Bowen ratio, which they attributed to an underprediction of cloud cover and soil moisture, respectively. A major source of uncertainty with such validation studies, however, is that SEB observations do not close (i.e., R n > H + LE + G ) because of the presence of a residual error term ( Foken 2008 ). This study focuses on the SEB components and associated

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Matthew E. Jeglum, Sebastian W. Hoch, Derek D. Jensen, Reneta Dimitrova, and Zachariah Silver

on the indicated day) to encompass the full nocturnal period. To investigate a possible connection between LTF occurrences and synoptic or mesoscale conditions, ERA-Interim reanalyses and additional observations at DPG were used. The ERA-Interim, a global reanalysis dataset operated by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, is run with 60 vertical levels and a reduced Gaussian grid with 79-km spacing for surface and other gridpoint fields ( Dee et al. 2011 ). Using the ERA

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