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Siegfried Schubert, Hailan Wang, and Max Suarez

significant rainfall and surface air temperature anomalies in the continental regions of western Europe, European Russia, India, east Asia, and North America. They suggested that the heat sources associated with the Indian summer monsoon may be responsible for maintaining the CGT. Ding and Wang (2007) further showed that such a CGT also operates on intraseasonal time scales. Jiang and Lau (2008) found evidence for an intraseasonally varying wave train extending from the western North Pacific to North

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Man-Li C. Wu, Oreste Reale, and Siegfried D. Schubert

evidence of two time scales within the easterly wave regime. One of the two subregimes, appearing on the 6–9-day time scale with a wavelength of about 6000 km, was attributed to oscillations within subtropical high belts. In the more extensive follow-up study by the same team ( Diedhiou et al. 1999 ), the spectral analysis and wave tracks were computed from both NCEP and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) daily reanalyses, confirming those results and providing more robust

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Mark Decker, Michael A. Brunke, Zhuo Wang, Koichi Sakaguchi, Xubin Zeng, and Michael G. Bosilovich

–atmosphere–sea ice) model to derive the best estimate of the state of the atmosphere and land surface. The National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)’s Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) are three major centers that have recently produced “second generation” reanalysis datasets. While they are the best approximation of the state of

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Michael A. Brunke, Zhuo Wang, Xubin Zeng, Michael Bosilovich, and Chung-Lin Shie

Bourras et al. (2002) . Finally, sea surface turbulent fluxes can be derived from global model results that have been constrained by surface and rawinsonde observations and satellite measurements. Such products are called reanalyses and are produced by some of the major modeling centers, such as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), the Japan Meteorological Agency

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Benjamin A. Schenkel and Robert E. Hart

are only affected by changes in the observing system ( Thorne and Vose 2010 ). Previous climate-scale studies of TCs utilizing reanalyses have included Hart et al. (2007) who used the 40-year European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-40; Uppala et al. 2005 ) to quantify the environmental “memory” of TC passage. The ERA-40 was also used by Sriver and Huber (2006) to calculate TC power dissipation ( Emanuel 2005 ) to argue that increases in sea surface

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Rolf H. Reichle, Randal D. Koster, Gabriëlle J. M. De Lannoy, Barton A. Forman, Qing Liu, Sarith P. P. Mahanama, and Ally Touré

located in the Northern Hemisphere (mostly in Russia, Europe, and Alaska) for the period October 2002 through August 2009 were used because they fulfilled the screening criteria outlined in the appendix . In addition, we used the snow depth product from the Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC) daily snow analysis ( Brasnett 1999 ; Brown and Brasnett 2010 ). The CMC product provides daily snow depth throughout the Northern Hemisphere at a horizontal resolution of approximately 24 km for the period of

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Kyle F. Itterly and Patrick C. Taylor

averaged to 3-hourly resolution for comparison with CERES data. 2) ERA-Interim The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Interim Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) product ( Berrisford et al. 2011 ; Dee et al. 2011 ) is the most recent reanalysis from ECMWF covering the period 1979–present. ERA-Interim uses cycle 31r2 of the ECMWF Integrated Forecast System at spatial resolution of T213 (~80 km) for surface and many other gridpoint fields; basic dynamical fields have a higher spatial

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Michael G. Bosilovich, Franklin R. Robertson, and Junye Chen

. Data a. Reanalyses There exist several atmospheric reanalyses for the period of 1979 through current time. The Japanese 25-yr Reanalysis (JRA-25), released for use in March 2006 ( Onogi et al. 2005 , 2007 ); the 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Re-Analysis (ERA-40; Uppala et al. 2005 ), which stops in August 2002; and the National Centers for Atmospheric Research–Department of Energy second reanalysis (NCEP–DOE R2; Kanamitsu et al. 2002 ) represent the second generation

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Yonghong Yi, John S. Kimball, Lucas A. Jones, Rolf H. Reichle, and Kyle C. McDonald

(top) MERRA, and AMSR-E 2003–2006 (middle) UM and (right) VU daily surface soil wetness (%). Areas with insufficient retrievals or outside of the study domain are shown in white. The MERRA results show overall similar seasonal patterns as the two AMSR-E surface soil moisture datasets in the low and middle latitudes but with generally stronger seasonal variation. ( Figs. 9d–i ). For example, the characteristic patterns of spring wetting in central Asia and northern Europe and gradual summer drying

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Nili Harnik, Judith Perlwitz, and Tiffany A. Shaw

are presented in section 3 , and the findings are summarized in section 4 . 2. Data and analysis approach The reanalysis data used in this study are the daily three-dimensional geopotential heights, and zonal-mean zonal wind and temperature fields from the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalysis dataset ( Rienecker et al. 2011 ; Schubert et al. 2008 ) covering the period from 1979 to 2009. Shaw et al. (2010) used the 40-yr European Centre for Medium

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