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Natalie P. Thomas, Michael G. Bosilovich, Allison B. Marquardt Collow, Randal D. Koster, Siegfried D. Schubert, Amin Dezfuli, and Sarith P. Mahanama

. Climatol. , 31 , 313 – 323 , https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.2222 . 10.1002/joc.2222 Draper , C. S. , R. H. Reichle , and R. D. Koster , 2018 : Assessment of MERRA-2 land surface energy flux estimates . J. Climate , 31 , 671 – 691 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0121.1 . 10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0121.1 Fischer , E. M. , S. I. Seneviratne , P. L. Vidale , D. Lüthi , and C. Schär , 2007 : Soil moisture–atmosphere interactions during the 2003 European summer heat wave . J. Climate

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Mohar Chattopadhyay, Will McCarty, and Isaac Moradi

improved the quality of this article. APPENDIX Acronyms and Their Definitions AMSU Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit AMV Atmospheric motion vector Aqua Earth Observing System satellite ASCAT Advanced Scatterometer EUMETSAT European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites CDR Climate Data Record CFSR Climate Forecast System Reanalysis CH Channel CIMSS Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies CLASS Comprehensive Large Array-Data Stewardship System FCDR Fundamental

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Rolf H. Reichle, Clara S. Draper, Q. Liu, Manuela Girotto, Sarith P. P. Mahanama, Randal D. Koster, and Gabrielle J. M. De Lannoy

-depth assessment of the MERRA-2 land surface energy balance is left for future study. The MERRA-2 skill is compared to that of MERRA-Land, MERRA, and, where possible, ERA-Interim/Land, a land-only reanalysis dataset produced recently by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The paper is organized as follows. Section 2 provides a brief description of the MERRA-2 system and the data used in this study. Next, the MERRA-2 estimates of terrestrial water storage ( section 3a ), soil

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C. A. Randles, A. M. da Silva, V. Buchard, P. R. Colarco, A. Darmenov, R. Govindaraju, A. Smirnov, B. Holben, R. Ferrare, J. Hair, Y. Shinozuka, and C. J. Flynn

column defined by the volcano elevation and the plume-top height; degassing volcanoes emit at the volcano elevation. With the exception of aircraft and energy-sector sulfur dioxide, anthropogenic aerosol sources emit into the lowest model layer. Energy-sector emissions of SO 2 (EDGARv4.2; European Commission 2011 ) are emitted between 100 and 500 m above the surface as in Buchard et al. (2014) . Table 1. Aerosol and precursor emissions in MERRA-2. Precursor gasses include SO 2 , DMS, and MSA for

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Gloria L. Manney and Michaela I. Hegglin

midlatitudes and a decrease north of 60°N, suggesting an equatorward shift of the polar jet. Archer and Caldeira (2008) used NCEP–NCAR and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA-40 reanalysis data to examine global trends in jet streams in a 2D view using a mass-weighted average throughout the upper troposphere; they showed evidence of a poleward and upward shift of polar jets in both hemispheres, as well as weakening jets—with the exception of the SH polar jet. Barton and Ellis

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Franklin R. Robertson, Michael G. Bosilovich, and Jason B. Roberts

minor departures from these dates are noted in the discussion below. a. Reanalyses VMFC is calculated from five state-of-the-art reanalysis projects—the NASA Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA; Rienecker et al. 2011 ) and an updated version, MERRA-2 (R. Gelaro et al. 2016, unpublished manuscript; Molod et al. 2015 ; Takacs et al. 2015 ); the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) interim reanalysis (ERA-Interim, hereinafter ERA-I; Dee et al

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Bin Guan, Duane E. Waliser, and F. Martin Ralph

seasonal and geographical variations in the two AR measures, first regionally, then globally. 2. Data and methodology a. Reanalyses and AR detection Global fields of specific humidity and vector winds are provided by two reanalysis products, namely, the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) interim reanalysis (ERA-Interim; Dee et al. 2011 ) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, version 2 (MERRA

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Clara S. Draper, Rolf H. Reichle, and Randal D. Koster

MERRA to MERRA-Land). An additional reanalysis, ERA-Interim, from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts ( Dee et al. 2011 ), is included in the evaluation of the temporal behavior of the turbulent fluxes. In contrast to the NASA reanalyses, ERA-Interim includes a land surface updating scheme ( de Rosnay et al. 2014 ). Specifically, the soil moisture, soil temperature, and snow temperatures are updated to minimize errors in the forecast screen-level relative humidity and temperature

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Krzysztof Wargan, Gordon Labow, Stacey Frith, Steven Pawson, Nathaniel Livesey, and Gary Partyka

quality of these fields has not encouraged the atmospheric ozone community to use them in scientific research. Typically, researchers prefer to utilize satellite and in situ ozone data along with assimilated meteorological variables. To our knowledge, the only comprehensively validated reanalysis ozone fields are those from two European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalyses: ERA-40 ( Dethof and Hólm 2004 ) and ERA-Interim ( Dragani 2011 ). On the other hand, a large body of

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V. Buchard, C. A. Randles, A. M. da Silva, A. Darmenov, P. R. Colarco, R. Govindaraju, R. Ferrare, J. Hair, A. J. Beyersdorf, L. D. Ziemba, and H. Yu

) are reduced for MERRA-2 in the Western Hemisphere (e.g., over the southeast United States and over biomass burning regions in South America), in Asia, and in Europe. However, compared with van Donkelaar et al. (2010) , MERRA-2 PM 2.5 appears to be overestimated over arid regions and underestimated over China. This is consistent with Randles et al. (2016 , their Fig. 4.14), who show an underestimation of MERRA-2 sulfate surface concentrations relative to observations from the Acid Deposition

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