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Robert Conrick and Clifford F. Mass

:// . 10.1175/2010JHM1282.1 Keil , C. , A. Tafferner , H. Mannstein , and U. Schättler , 2003 : Evaluating high-resolution model forecasts of European winter storms by use of satellite and radar observations . Wea. Forecasting , 18 , 732 – 747 ,<0732:EHMFOE>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0434(2003)018<0732:EHMFOE>2.0.CO;2 Kim , J. , D. Shin , and C. Kummerow , 2013 : Impacts of a priori databases using six WRF

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Zeinab Takbiri, Ardeshir Ebtehaj, Efi Foufoula-Georgiou, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, and F. Joseph Turk

example, we observe that, in the summer, the detection probability of solid and mixed phases are negatively biased (~−12%) over the Rockies and the Andes. However, in winter, this probability is positively biased over small parts of the Scandinavian Mountains in northern Europe (~+15%). Some of these mountainous biases are mainly attributed to the false detection of precipitation occurrence rather than its phase ( Fig. 7b ). Additionally, over the tropical forests, the algorithm falsely detects some

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Andrew Heymsfield, Aaron Bansemer, Norman B. Wood, Guosheng Liu, Simone Tanelli, Ousmane O. Sy, Michael Poellot, and Chuntao Liu

rawinsondes when it is known that cloud is present are clearly needed to refine this estimate. Using the MF method we examine three satellite-borne radar datasets: CloudSat , TRMM, and GPM. CPR makes near-nadir-pointing observations with a footprint of about 1.7 km along track by 1.3 km cross track between 82°N and 82°S. Data used for these analyses cover the period from December 2007 through December 2008. Information about the meteorological state comes from reanalysis products of the European Centre

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Hannah C. Barnes, Joseph P. Zagrodnik, Lynn A. McMurdie, Angela K. Rowe, and Robert A. Houze Jr.

( Pobanz et al. 1994 ). KH waves have been observed within midlatitude baroclinic systems in various geographic regions, including off the East Coast of the United States ( Wakimoto et al. 1992 ), the North American Great Plains (e.g., Friedrich et al. 2008 ; Houser and Bluestein 2011 ), and mountainous regions in Europe ( Houze and Medina 2005 ) and the United States (e.g., Geerts and Miao 2010 ; Medina and Houze 2016 ). A large proportion of these studies observed KH waves within or near the

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Yagmur Derin, Emmanouil Anagnostou, Marios Anagnostou, and John Kalogiros

in urban areas. Proc. Sixth European Conf. on Radar in Meteorology and Hydrology , Sibiu, Romania, Administria Nationala de Meteorologie, 202–206. Matrosov , S. Y. , R. A. Kropfli , R. F. Reinking , and B. E. Martner , 1999 : Prospects for measuring rainfall using propagation differential phase in X- and Ka-radar bands . J. Appl. Meteor. , 38 , 766 – 776 ,<0766:PFMRUP>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0450(1999)038<0766:PFMRUP>2.0.CO;2 Matrosov , S. Y

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Joseph P. Zagrodnik, Lynn A. McMurdie, and Robert A. Houze Jr.

precipitation maximum at Wynoochee ( Fig. 2 ), the greatest amount of precipitation during this event was observed near Lake Quinault at Bishop Field and Prairie Creek. The greatest precipitation occurred on the forward slopes rather than at the highest elevations, which is typical of larger mountain ranges, such as the European Alps ( Frei and Schär 1998 ). Like most Pacific cyclone passages, this storm consisted of several distinct storm sectors ( Fig. 1 ). All four of the DSD regimes described in the

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