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  • Australasian climate over the last 2,000 years: The PAGES AUS2K synthesis x
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Michelle Ho, Danielle C. Verdon-Kidd, Anthony S. Kiem, and Russell N. Drysdale

suitable proxies for investigating high-resolution changes in climate ( Mooney 1997 ; Barr 2010 ). However, typical sedimentation rates in Australian lakes were relatively low prior to European settlement and subsequent land clearances around the late eighteenth century ( Harle et al. 2005 ). In addition, high-resolution varves can only be obtained when there is minimal bioturbation. Consequently, such a lake would be required to exhibit anoxic, or near anoxic, conditions at the lake bottom. With

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Tessa R. Vance, Tas D. van Ommen, Mark A. J. Curran, Chris T. Plummer, and Andrew D. Moy

reconstruct rainfall since European settlement (1788) in southeastern Australia (1783–1988) and found predominantly wet conditions from the mid-1780s to the mid-1830s. This apparent disparity between the tropical north and subtropical/temperate south is possibly explained by a southward displacement of the ITCZ during this time (attributed to the end of the LIA period) ( Newton et al. 2006 ). Such southward displacement of the ITCZ is thought to have resulted in tropical aridity and wetter conditions

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B. Timbal and R. Fawcett

two very different products; while historical reconstruction can provide highly reliable reconstruction (capturing nearly all the interannual variability), there is an inherent limit of the possibility to extend these records back in time; this is particularly true for Australia where until European colonization in 1788, no written records exist. On the contrary, paleo-reconstructions can provide much longer historical perspective but with a limit in the temporal accuracy (i.e., while decadal

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Steven J. Phipps, Helen V. McGregor, Joëlle Gergis, Ailie J. E. Gallant, Raphael Neukom, Samantha Stevenson, Duncan Ackerley, Josephine R. Brown, Matt J. Fischer, and Tas D. van Ommen

attributing climate change. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, S. Solomon et al., Eds., Cambridge University Press, 663–745. Hegerl , G. C. , J. Luterbacher , F. González-Rouco , S. F. B. Tett , T. Crowley , and E. Xoplaki , 2011 : Influence of human and natural forcing on European seasonal temperatures . Nat. Geosci. , 4 , 99 – 103 , doi:10.1038/NGEO1057 . Held , I. M. , and B. J. Soden , 2006 : Robust responses of the hydrological cycle to global warming . J

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