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Garry K. C. Clarke, Andrew B. G. Bush, and John W. M. Bush

tropical and North Atlantic (e.g., Hughen et al. 1996 ; Klitgaard-Kristensen et al. 1998 ), lake sediments in Europe and North America (e.g., von Grafenstein et al. 1998 ; Nesje and Dahl 2001 ; Spooner et al. 2002 ; Menounos et al. 2004 ; Veski et al. 2004 ), speleothems on the Arabian Peninsula ( Fleitmann et al. 2003 ), and ice cores from tropical Africa ( Thompson et al. 2002 ). Recent work has been less insistent about hemispheric extent, tending to emphasize the North Atlantic focus (e

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Garry K. C. Clarke, Etienne Berthier, Christian G. Schoof, and Alexander H. Jarosch

the DEMs and ice masks. Financial support was provided by the Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences (CFCAS) and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. EB acknowledges postdoctural support from the Marie Curie Outgoing International Fellowship program of the European Union. This paper is a contribution to the Polar Climate Stability Network and to the Western Canadian Cryospheric Network, both of which are funded by CFCAS and consortia of Canadian

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J. Paul Spence, Michael Eby, and Andrew J. Weaver

similar to the 8.2-kyr event. The 8.2-kyr event refers to the widespread cooling found in paleoclimate records in Greenland, Europe, North America, and the tropical Atlantic roughly 8200 calendar years ago ( Alley and Agustsdottir 2005 ; Morrill and Jacobsen 2005 ). The forcing for this event is thought to be the catastrophic final drainage of proglacial Lakes Agassiz and Ojibway (hereafter Lake Agassiz) into Hudson Bay and the Labrador Sea ( Barber et al. 1999 ). Paleoevidence suggests that roughly

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A. E. Viau and K. Gajewski

plants and vegetation to climate variability on orbital scales (e.g., Wright et al. 1993 ). However, significant changes in pollen sequences across North America and Europe occur synchronously, arguing for a response to changes in the climate regime at both a century and millennial scale ( Gajewski 1987 , 2000 ; Viau et al. 2002 ; Gajewski et al. 2006 , 2007 , and references therein). In addition, this relative lack of interest in lake sediments has been partly based on a perception that

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Stephen D. Griffiths and W. Richard Peltier

rapid climate change events. On the northwest European shelf, postglacial changes in tidal amplitudes, currents, and mixing were examined by Uehara et al. (2006) . They, and others (e.g., Shennan and Horton 2002 ), have shown that changes in tidal amplitudes over the Holocene need to be accounted for when interpreting sedimentary records used to construct relative sea level history. We note that a corresponding analysis of changes in tidal range is needed for the east coast of North America, where

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M. Eby, K. Zickfeld, A. Montenegro, D. Archer, K. J. Meissner, and A. J. Weaver

result in average air temperatures above the 2°C temperature guard rail suggested by the WBGU ( Schubert et al. 2006 ) and endorsed by the European Union. The threshold to stay below this guard rail would appear to be near 640 PgC of total emissions from the year 2000. Experiments with emissions of 1280 PgC and larger still exceed the 2°C guard rail after 10 000 yr. To estimate the perturbation lifetime of anthropogenic climate change the response curves of either CO 2 or temperature were fit to an

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Martin Sharp and Libo Wang

Zemlya, and 2004 the 45th longest on Severnaya Zemlya. 4. Discussion a. Comparison with previous work There have been few previous studies of the timing and duration of summer melt on the Eurasian Arctic ice caps. Smith et al. (2003) presented results for the timing of melt onset on five ice masses in Svalbard, Novaya Zemlya, and Severnaya Zemlya during the 1992–2000 period based on data from the European Remote Sensing (ERS) wind scatterometer. We compared their results with our results for the

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Marc d’Orgeville and W. Richard Peltier

climate fluctuations. J. Climate , 10 , 2299 – 2320 . Schlesinger , M. E. , and N. Ramankutty , 1994 : An oscillation in the global climate system of period 65–70 years. Nature , 367 , 723 – 726 . Smith , T. M. , and R. W. Reynolds , 2004 : Improved extended reconstruction of SST (1854–1997). J. Climate , 17 , 2466 – 2477 . Sutton , R. T. , and D. L. R. Hodson , 2005 : Atlantic Ocean forcing of North American and European summer climate. Science , 309 , 115 – 118

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