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Brian J. Carroll, Belay B. Demoz, David D. Turner, and Ruben Delgado

and wind lidars over Europe (without an LLJ) to evaluate ECMWF forecast model performance, showing a model wet bias of 17%. Passive ground-based sensors such as the atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI; Turner and Löhnert 2014 ) have also contributed to studies of LLJ thermodynamics and interactions with the stable boundary layer ( Bonin et al. 2015 ; Toms et al. 2017 ; Johnson et al. 2018 ; Lin et al. 2019 ). These observational studies have been complemented by modeling studies

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J. C. Hubbert

. Fifth European Conf. on Radar in Meteorology and Hydrology , Helsinki, Finland, Finnish Meteorological Institute, 5 pp. Hubbert , J. C. , M. Dixon , S. Ellis , and G. Meymaris , 2009 : Weather radar ground clutter. Part I: Identification, modeling and simulation . J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 26 , 1165 – 1180 , doi: 10.1175/2009JTECHA1159.1 . 10.1175/2009JTECHA1159.1 Hubbert , J. C. , S. Ellis , M. Dixon , and G. Meymaris , 2010 : Modeling, error analysis, and evaluation

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Bart Geerts, David Parsons, Conrad L. Ziegler, Tammy M. Weckwerth, Michael I. Biggerstaff, Richard D. Clark, Michael C. Coniglio, Belay B. Demoz, Richard A. Ferrare, William A. Gallus Jr., Kevin Haghi, John M. Hanesiak, Petra M. Klein, Kevin R. Knupp, Karen Kosiba, Greg M. McFarquhar, James A. Moore, Amin R. Nehrir, Matthew D. Parker, James O. Pinto, Robert M. Rauber, Russ S. Schumacher, David D. Turner, Qing Wang, Xuguang Wang, Zhien Wang, and Joshua Wurman

2006 ; Koch et al. 2008 ; Marsham et al. 2011 ). Whatever the dominant mechanism for the initiation, organization, and maintenance of deep convection at night across the Great Plains, weather and climate models poorly capture this nocturnal maximum (e.g., Surcel et al. 2010 ; Trenberth et al. 2003 ), and this may have implications downwind ( Stensrud 1996 ) and as far downstream as Europe ( Rodwell et al. 2013 ). Warm-season QPFs are relatively less accurate ( Fritsch and Carbone 2004 ), which

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Dylan W. Reif and Howard B. Bluestein

.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0450(1985)024<1048:TDVOTA>2.0.CO;2 Fabry , F. , 2012 : Daily and annual cycles of precipitation and convection over the continental United States. Proc. Seventh European Conf. on Radar in Meteorology and Hydrology , Toulouse, France, Météo-France, 5 pp. [Available online at http://www.meteo.fr/cic/meetings/2012/ERAD/extended_abs/RCS_089_ext_abs.pdf .] Fritsch , J. M. , R. J. Kane , and C. R. Chelius , 1986 : The contribution of mesoscale convective weather systems

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Tammy M. Weckwerth, Kristy J. Weber, David D. Turner, and Scott M. Spuler

. , and Marzano F. , 2006 : Temperature and humidity profile retrievals from ground-based radiometers during TUC . Meteor. Z. , 15 , 45 – 56 , doi: 10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0099 . Cimini, D. , and Coauthors , 2012 : An international network of ground-based microwave radiometers for the assimilation of temperature and humidity profiles into NWP models. Proc. Ninth Int. Symp. on Tropospheric Profiling , European Space Agency, L’Aquila, Italy, P45. [Available online at http

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