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  • NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) – Pre-launch Applied Research x
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Amy McNally, Gregory J. Husak, Molly Brown, Mark Carroll, Chris Funk, Soni Yatheendradas, Kristi Arsenault, Christa Peters-Lidard, and James P. Verdin

Noah land surface model (LSM), and 3) microwave-derived soil moisture estimates from the European Space Agency (ESA) Essential Climate Variable (ECV) project. We standardized the Noah and ECV soil moisture estimates and then used them to replace the soil moisture values in the original WRSI calculation. This section describes in detail the meteorological inputs for the Noah LSM and the soil water accounting scheme; the different soil moisture products; the calculation of the WRSI values; and

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C. Albergel, W. Dorigo, R. H. Reichle, G. Balsamo, P. de Rosnay, J. Muñoz-Sabater, L. Isaksen, R. de Jeu, and W. Wagner

floods. For many applications, global- or continental-scale soil moisture maps are needed. Among the first soil moisture analysis systems used for operational NWP was the system implemented by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) in 1994 to prevent the land surface model (LSM) drifting to dry conditions in summer. Since then, major upgrades have been implemented in the land surface modeling and analysis systems of the high-resolution component of the Integrated Forecasting

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Sujay V. Kumar, Kenneth W. Harrison, Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Joseph A. Santanello Jr., and Dalia Kirschbaum

Radiometer (SMMR; 1978–87), the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I; since 1987), the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI; since 1997), the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E; 2002–11), scatterometer-based products from European Remote Sensing Satellites 1 and 2 ( ERS-1 and ERS-2 ; 1991–2006), and the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT; since 2007). These sensors provided estimates of soil moisture from X-band (~10 GHz) and C

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M. Susan Moran, Bradley Doorn, Vanessa Escobar, and Molly E. Brown

. Hydrometeor. ). The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) is involved, among other research, in an analysis of a time series of soil moisture products for global trend analysis ( Albergel et al. 2013 ). Using data from the U.S. Drought Monitor provided by the National Drought Mitigation Center, a study reported that assimilation of soil moisture information in a land surface model provided improvement in spatial patterns of drought estimates ( Kumar et al. 2014b ). New hydrologic data

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Fan Chen, Wade T. Crow, and Dongryeol Ryu

are available on a single day, the two retrievals are averaged to obtain a single daily value. The SMOS satellite, designated for soil moisture observation, was launched on 2 November 2009 by the European Space Agency (ESA). The Microwave Imaging Radiometer using Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS) on board SMOS senses L-band microwave emission (1.400–1.427 GHz) that penetrates the top 5 cm of the soil column. Data used in this study are the SMOS operational Soil Moisture User Data Product 2, version 5

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Husayn El Sharif, Jingfeng Wang, and Aris P. Georgakakos

moisture data to 1-km resolution over Europe. Lin et al. (2011) used the coupled WRF–Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN)-based Real-Time Integrated Basin Simulator (tRIBS) with Vegetation Generator for Interactive Evolution (VEGGIE) hydrologic model to downscale early adopter SMAP data products. Use of high spatiotemporal resolution soil moisture data for modeling crop yields is an active field of research. 3) SMAP and other soil moisture measurement missions Remote sensing soil moisture datasets

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Catherine Champagne, Andrew Davidson, Patrick Cherneski, Jessika L’Heureux, and Trevor Hadwen

sensing depth varies with soil moisture conditions, it is generally less than 5 cm from the surface ( Escorihuela et al. 2010 ). Level 2 SMOS soil moisture observations were acquired from the European Space Agency (ESA) and processed using version 5.51 of the soil moisture processor. The level 2 soil moisture processor estimates soil moisture and other geophysical parameters for a set of fixed earth grid points using available brightness temperature information at each grid point ( Kerr et al. 2012

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Marco L. Carrera, Stéphane Bélair, and Bernard Bilodeau

the European Space Agency (ESA) as the second Earth Explorer Opportunity mission as part of the ESA’s Living Planet Programme. An L-band radiometer on board the SMOS satellite measures the microwave emission from the soil, which provides information on the soil moisture content in the top 2–5 cm of the soil ( Kerr et al. 2010 ). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission in January 2015 ( Entekhabi et al. 2010b ). In addition

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Randal D. Koster, Gregory K. Walker, Sarith P. P. Mahanama, and Rolf H. Reichle

Andreadis, K. M. , Clark E. A. , Wood A. W. , Hamlet A. F. , and Lettenmaier D. P. , 2005 : Twentieth-century drought in the conterminous United States . J. Hydrometeor. , 6 , 985 – 1001 , doi:10.1175/JHM450.1. Bierkens, M. F. P. , and van Beek L. P. H. , 2009 : Seasonal predictability of European discharge: NAO and hydrological response time . J. Hydrometeor. , 10 , 953 – 968 , doi:10.1175/2009JHM1034.1. Boone, A. , Habets F. , Noilhan J. , and Coauthors , 2004 : The

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