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Yi Dai, Sharanya J. Majumdar, and David S. Nolan

section 4 , we will also provide a statistical analysis of real TCs. For consistency with operational use in these real cases, the total shear is defined in these sections as the 200–850 hPa wind vector difference averaged within 500 km of the center, and the environmental shear is simply defined as the 200–850 hPa wind vector difference averaged within 500–1000 km of the center. The data used to calculate the shear vectors for real TCs are from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts

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Yi Dai, Sharanya J. Majumdar, and David S. Nolan

vapor satellite imagery, are used to study Hurricanes Edouard (2014) and Bill (2009). The AMV images are collected from the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. This study also makes use of European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) interim reanalysis (ERA-Interim; Dee et al. 2011 ) data to show upper-level flow features. The horizontal grid spacing of the ERA-Interim data is about 0.7° × 0.7°, which is sufficient

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James D. Doyle, Jonathan R. Moskaitis, Joel W. Feldmeier, Ronald J. Ferek, Mark Beaubien, Michael M. Bell, Daniel L. Cecil, Robert L. Creasey, Patrick Duran, Russell L. Elsberry, William A. Komaromi, John Molinari, David R. Ryglicki, Daniel P. Stern, Christopher S. Velden, Xuguang Wang, Todd Allen, Bradford S. Barrett, Peter G. Black, Jason P. Dunion, Kerry A. Emanuel, Patrick A. Harr, Lee Harrison, Eric A. Hendricks, Derrick Herndon, William Q. Jeffries, Sharanya J. Majumdar, James A. Moore, Zhaoxia Pu, Robert F. Rogers, Elizabeth R. Sanabia, Gregory J. Tripoli, and Da-Lin Zhang

-57 flight track (solid line) and dropsonde launch locations (diamonds) for the two TCI flights over Marty, overlaid on Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) infrared imagery centered on the time the aircraft was over the storm. Potential development of Marty off the Pacific coast of Mexico was noted in the 10-day European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ensemble and deterministic forecasts as early as 16 September. It was not until much later, though, that

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Peter Black, Lee Harrison, Mark Beaubien, Robert Bluth, Roy Woods, Andrew Penny, Robert W. Smith, and James D. Doyle

3) program] humidity values and the Scanning High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder (S-HIS) humidity values. S-HIS was initialized using European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model fields as a first guess in profile retrievals. S-HIS showed consistently higher humidities relative to the minisonde on the order of 40% above 400 mb for 14 intercomparisons during 2012. Cursory examination of 2013 minisonde and S-HIS humidity data indicates that this issue still persists

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