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Xianan Jiang, Duane E. Waliser, William S. Olson, Wei-Kuo Tao, Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, Jui-Lin Li, Baijun Tian, Yuk L. Yung, Adrian M. Tompkins, Stephen E. Lang, and Mircea Grecu

are found with a minimum around the melting level. Meanwhile, a trailing heating maximum in the upper troposphere is also exhibited to the west of MJO convection center, consistent with previous findings. In the present study, vertical heating structures associated with the MJO are further investigated by utilizing the latest versions of TRMM estimates produced by three research groups, two latent and one radiative heating estimate. Meanwhile, heating structures derived based on the 40-yr European

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T. N. Krishnamurti, Arindam Chakraborty, and A. K. Mishra

European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model. The spinup was there for several reasons; we did not carry out data assimilation with each of our models, we simply borrowed the assimilated initial fields from the ECMWF. The model differences in physics, dynamics, and resolution all contribute to such an initial spinup. Vertical velocity and the sea level pressure had equilibrated by hour 12, and their variations were more monotonic at grid points; this gave us enough confidence to

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Yukari N. Takayabu, Shoichi Shige, Wei-Kuo Tao, and Nagio Hirota

land even without average upward velocity at the midtroposphere over the South America (∼60°W). We also examined this point with the 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-40) data (not shown), although midtropospheric vertical velocities with ERA-40 are not downward at deep-heating longitudes over the South America; however, they show very small upward velocities that are distinct from those over the ocean. To examine the above west–east contrast in

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Samson Hagos, Chidong Zhang, Wei-Kuo Tao, Steve Lang, Yukari N. Takayabu, Shoichi Shige, Masaki Katsumata, Bill Olson, and Tristan L’Ecuyer

are also included in this study: the National Centers for Environmental Prediction–Department of Energy (NCEP–DOE) reanalysis (NCEPII; Kanamitsu et al. 2002 ), the Japanese 25-yr reanalysis (JRA25; Onogi et al. 2007 ), the 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-40; Uppala et al. 2005 ); and the Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Global Modeling and

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Mircea Grecu, William S. Olson, Chung-Lin Shie, Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, and Wei-Kuo Tao

, 2007) . Briefly, HERB synthesizes ice cloud microphysical property information from VIRS; liquid cloud properties, precipitation profiles, SST, and water vapor retrievals from the TRMM TMI; and vertical profiles of temperature and humidity from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalyses to characterize the three-dimensional structure of clouds and precipitation in the atmosphere. These provide input to a broadband radiative transfer model that simulates vertical

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Shaocheng Xie, Timothy Hume, Christian Jakob, Stephen A. Klein, Renata B. McCoy, and Minghua Zhang

the TWP-ICE soundings and background European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analyses using an interpolation scheme described by Cressman (1959) . The Cressman scheme uses a weighting function that depends on the distance between an observation station and an analysis grid point, as well as the difference between observations and the background. The interpolation is carried out for the difference field between observations and the background. If there is no measurement within a

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