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Nicky Stringer, Jeff Knight, and Hazel Thornton

. Although this application does not use seasonal forecasting explicitly, the initial ENSO state is likely to persist throughout the season and influence the meteorological conditions. Traditionally, skillful seasonal meteorological forecasts have been confined to the tropics. However, in recent years, there has been an emergence of skill in the prediction of large-scale circulation patterns in the midlatitudes, especially during winter. In this study we focus on European seasonal meteorological

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K. Trusilova, M. Jung, G. Churkina, U. Karstens, M. Heimann, and M. Claussen

-surface temperature increased by 0.8 K in summer and by 1.0 K in winter, on average. However, the authors performed a model simulation on a coarse 36-km scale and used a very simple parameterization for representing urban land. In this study, we examine impacts of the urban land use in Europe on local and regional scales. We update the urban mask for Europe and use a regional model with a modified land surface scheme for a more detailed representation of urban land at the spatial scale of 10 km. We focus on

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Paul M. Della-Marta, Mark A. Liniger, Christof Appenzeller, David N. Bresch, Pamela Köllner-Heck, and Veruska Muccione

of the frequency of rare events is the number of observations of such events. Della-Marta et al. (2009) used the 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) reanalysis (ERA-40) to estimate the return period (RP) of extreme winds at continental and regional scales. They found that the uncertainties associated with long RPs (approximately 30 yr) are in the range between −60% and +200% of the RP estimate. This places limitations on the use of these data for reinsurance risk

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Armin Aulinger, Volker Matthias, and Markus Quante

(atmosphere, soil, water, biota) in conjunction with a high bioaccumulative potential and lifelong exposure of individuals. This has been confirmed in various studies in which PAHs and other POPs were measured in fish, marine mammals, seabirds, and humans ( Baussant et al. 2001 ; MacDonald et al. 2000 ). In conclusion, several international conventions were initiated to reduce or phase out the most hazardous of these substances; examples include the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN

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Margarita Chernavskaya

JULY 1996 CHERNAVSKAYA 1059Weather Conditions of 1695-96 in European Russia MARGARITA CHERNAVSKAYALaboratory of Dynamical and Historical Climatology, Institute of Geography Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia(Manuscript received 8 May 1995, in final form 27 November 1995)ABSTRACT The Russian chronicles and the diaries of Czar Peter the Great were used to describe

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Werner Möser and Ehrhard Raschke

166JOURNAL OF CLIMATE AND APPLIED METEOROLOGYVOLUME 23Incident Solar Radiation over Europe Estimated from METEOSAT DataWERNER MOSER AND ENRUARD RASCHKEInst itus f-r Geophysik und Meteorologie, University of Cologne, Germany (F.R.)26 ApriL 1983 and 10 August 1983ABSTRACTDaily sums of the downward solar radiation, i.e., the global radiation, have been computed from imagingdata of reflected solar and emitted infrared radiation which were measured from the geostationary satellitesMETEOSAT I and H

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N. Mazarakis, V. Kotroni, K. Lagouvardos, and A. A. Argiriou

and local mesoscale circulations. Moreover, Gungle and Krider (2006) examined nine relatively isolated warm-season thunderstorms in Florida and found that there exists a linear relationship between the precipitation amount and the number of CG flashes. The number of studies that focus on Europe, and especially on the Mediterranean Sea, is relatively limited. Soriano et al. (2001) recently studied the relationship between CG lightning and convective precipitation over the Iberian Peninsula for

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Hanna Hueging, Rabea Haas, Kai Born, Daniela Jacob, and Joaquim G. Pinto

production potential can be quantified by wind energy density (WED), which is mainly a function of the cube of the wind speed ( Manwell et al. 2009 ). In 2011, the installed capacity of wind power plants in the European Union (EU) amounted to 94 GW ( Wilkes et al. 2012 ). Under current capacity factors, energy output from existing wind power plants meets only approximately 6.3% of the EU’s electricity demand. The European Commission aims at increasing the share of electricity from wind resources to 15

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Nikola Godev

DECEMBER 1971 N I K O L A G O D E V 1097Anticyclonic Activity over South Europe and Its Relationship to Orographf NIKOLA GODEV Geophysical Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Science, Sofiia(Manuscript received 8 February 1971, in revised form 5 August 1971) ABSTRACT This is a study of anticyclonic activity over a part of southern Europe in which several anticydogeneticareas

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Silvana Di Sabatino, Laura S. Leo, Rosella Cataldo, Carlo Ratti, and Rex E. Britter

1. Introduction In recent years we have witnessed an increase of urbanization worldwide. Over 50% of the world’s population (almost 80% in the United States and about 70% in Europe) live in cities and this ratio is still increasing. This is particularly evident in developing countries undergoing rapid urbanization: between 2000 and 2030, the urban population in Africa and Asia is set to double and, by that same year, urban dwellers will make up about 60% of the world’s population ( United

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