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Christian Barthlott and Corinna Hoose

aerosol–cloud interactions, we performed numerical simulations with maritime, intermediate, continental, and continental polluted conditions for which the number density of condensation nuclei N CN , the mean radius of the larger aerosol mode R 2 , and the logarithm of the mode’s standard deviation [log( σ )] are prescribed ( Table 1 ). Typical conditions of central Europe are represented by the continental aerosol assumption ( Hande et al. 2016 ). Similar to other double-moment schemes (e

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Richard Fay

OCTOBER 1958RICHARD FAY467SOME VARIATIONS IN EUROPEAN CLIMATIC TEMPERATURE By Richard Fay United States Weather Bureau(Manuscript received 25 January 1958)ABSTRACTAn attempt is made to depict mean circulation patterns associated with observed-temperature climatechanges in northwest Europe during the period 1780-1930. Use is made of observed pressure gradients associated with warm and cold seasons and of computed annual wind directions at several stations. Results arepresented as possible

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Philip S. Brown Jr. and G. D. Robinson

270 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOr~UME36The Variance Spectrum of Tropospheric Winds over Eastern Europe Pm~.rv S. Baow~, JR., Am) G. D. Ro~rsso~Th6 C~nler for the Environmen$ ~' Man, Inc., Har~ford, CT 06120(Manuscript received 8 March 1978, in final fbrm 12 July 1978)ABSTRACT Daily values of the 500 mb wind at 72 radiosonde stations in eastern Europe during July 1966 are analyzed.Variance is

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Åke Johansson, Anthony Barnston, Suranjana Saha, and Huug van den Dool

levels should get higher and higher the more predictable the atmosphere is by dynamical methods. The purpose of this paper is to explore the level and origin of skill of seasonal forecasts for northern Europe. We use an empirical method for this purpose. The skill obtained by empirical methods can be regarded as a basic reference, or benchmark, to which the skill levels of coupled dynamical model forecasts should be compared. One reason for using statistical models is that they, in general, require

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Christian L. Keppenne and C. Nicolis

2356 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOL. 46, No. 15Global Properties and Local Structure of the Weather Attractor over Western Europe CHRISTIAN L. KEPPENNEInstitut des Sciences Naturelles Appliqu~es, Louvain-la.Neuve, Belgium C. NICOLISInstitut d ;4dronomie Spatiale de Belgique, Bruxelles, Belgium(Manuscript received 10 February 1988, in final form 16 January 1989

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Dehai Luo, Yao Yao, and Aiguo Dai

1. Introduction In recent years, extreme cold events in winter have occurred frequently in Europe ( Zhang et al. 2012 ). They caused persistent cold outbreaks and anomalous snowfalls in the Euro-Atlantic and its adjacent regions ( Sillmann and Croci-Maspoli 2009 ; Sillmann et al. 2011 ). The extreme cold European winters were found to be related to not only the negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) ( Yiou and Nogaj 2004 ; Scaife et al. 2008 ; Cattiaux et al. 2010 ; Seager

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H. E. Gerber

2502 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOLUME36Absorption of 632.8 nm Radiation by Maritime Aerosols near Europe H. E. G-aa~aNaval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375(Manuscript received 6 June 1979, in final form 24 July 1979) ABSTRACT The bulk single-scattering albedo of atmospheric particles was determined by simultaneously measuring the optical

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Thomas A. Hafner and Ronald B. Smith

562 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VoL. 42, No. 6Pressure Drag on the European Alps in Relation to Synoptic Events THOMAS A. HAFNER~ AND RONALD B. SMITHDepartment of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520(Manuscript received 16 January 1984, in final form 3 December 1984)ABSTRACT In addition to the frictional surface drag, the pressure drag plays a signiticant role in

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J. D. Opsteegh and H. M. Van Den Dool

1862 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOLUME36A Diagnostic Study of the Time-Mean AtmosphereOver Northwestern Europe during Winter J. D, OPSTEEGH AND H. M. VAN DEN DOOLRoyal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, De Bilt, The ,Netherlands(Manuscript received 19 March 1979, in final form 7 June 1979) ABSTRACT A diagnostic study has been performed to investigate the

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Dehai Luo, Yao Yao, and Aiguo Dai

1. Introduction In Luo et al. (2015 , hereafter Part I) , we have examined the relationship between the European blocking (EB) activity and the Atlantic background conditions using reanalysis data. We demonstrated that the EB events are intense and long lived and tend to occur in eastern Europe (EE) during 1978–94 (P1), but in western Europe (WE) during 1995–2011 (P2). The decadal changes in the EB events from P1 to P2 are found to be closely related to the decadal changes in the number of

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