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Bogdan Antonescu, David M. Schultz, Alois Holzer, and Pieter Groenemeijer

The threat of tornadoes in Europe is not widely recognized, despite causing injuries, fatalities, and damages. There was a time when tornado research in Europe was more active than in the United States. Before the beginning of the Second World War, European scientists and meteorologists were actively researching tornadoes (e.g., Peltier 1840 ; Reye 1872 ; Weyher 1889 ; Wegener 1917 ; Letzmann 1931 ), while the word “tornado” was banned by the United States Weather Bureau ( Galway 1992

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Asko Huuskonen, Elena Saltikoff, and Iwan Holleman

The European Operational Program for Exchange of Weather Radar Information (OPERA) has worked to improve harmonization of radar systems and measurements since 1999 and has recently started production of network-wide radar mosaics. Weather crosses national borders, and hence the exchange of weather observations is most important. The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has advanced the exchange since its founding in the 1870s. Europe belongs to the WMO regional area VI, and in this area 30

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Pieter Groenemeijer, Tomáš Púčik, Alois M. Holzer, Bogdan Antonescu, Kathrin Riemann-Campe, David M. Schultz, Thilo Kühne, Bernold Feuerstein, Harold E. Brooks, Charles A. Doswell III, Hans-Joachim Koppert, and Robert Sausen

The European Severe Storms Laboratory studies severe weather, climate, and forecasting; organizes forecaster training; and manages a large database of severe weather reports. During the second half of the twentieth century, research on convective storms was relatively scarce and uncoordinated in Europe compared to efforts in the United States ( Dotzek et al. 2009 ; Antonescu et al. 2016 ). Scientific and forecasting practice was hampered by the fragmentation of research by national borders and

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Mark J Rodwell, Linus Magnusson, Peter Bauer, Peter Bechtold, Massimo Bonavita, Carla Cardinali, Michail Diamantakis, Paul Earnshaw, Antonio Garcia-Mendez, Lars Isaksen, Erland Källén, Daniel Klocke, Philippe Lopez, Tony McNally, Anders Persson, Fernando Prates, and Nils Wedi

A relationship between busted European forecasts, a Rockies trough, and storms over eastern North America suggests the importance of improving quality and use of observations, model depiction of convective systems, and representation of uncertainties. In common with other weather centers, the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) produces a “single high-resolution forecast” and an “ensemble of lower-resolution forecasts.” The former represents, on average, the most accurate

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Z. Su, W. Timmermans, Y. Zeng, J. Schulz, V. O. John, R. A. Roebeling, P. Poli, D. Tan, F. Kaspar, A. K. Kaiser-Weiss, E. Swinnen, C. Toté, H. Gregow, T. Manninen, A. Riihelä, J.-C. Calvet, Y. Ma, and J. Wen

activities, such as the formulation of the architecture for climate monitoring from space conducted by major space agencies. A major objective of CORE-CLIMAX was to systematically assess the capacity of ongoing European activities in the area of generation and provision of CDRs. With respect to C3S, the roles of in situ data and model-based reanalysis data need to be considered as well. As the in situ datasets are generally under national responsibility, the CORE-CLIMAX assessment did not cover all in

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Bogdan Antonescu, Hugo M. A. M. Ricketts, and David M. Schultz

Alfred Wegener not only proposed the theory of continental drift but was also a pioneer of modern tornado research in Europe. Alfred Wegener (1880–1930; Fig. 1 ) is mainly remembered today for his contributions to continental drift from which the modern theory of plate tectonics—“one of the key scientific concepts of the past century” ( Greene 2015 )—is derived ( Romano and Cifelli 2015 ). Wegener not only made major contributions to geology and geophysics but also to astronomy and geodesy

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Samuel Jonson Sutanto, Henny A. J. Van Lanen, Fredrik Wetterhall, and Xavier Llort

) developed an experimental seasonal hydrological forecasting system over the Yellow River basin. The system produces seasonal hydrological drought forecasts for streamflow based on the North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) climate forecast models and the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model. In Europe, the need for a seasonal drought EWS have risen with the increase in the numbers of drought occurrences over the past decades ( Stahl et al. 2010 ; Spinoni et al. 2017 ). From

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A. J. Illingworth, D. Cimini, A. Haefele, M. Haeffelin, M. Hervo, S. Kotthaus, U. Löhnert, P. Martinet, I. Mattis, E. J. O’Connor, and R. Potthast

Observations of profiles of winds, aerosols, clouds, temperature, and humidity in the lowest few kilometers of the atmosphere from networks of ceilometers, Doppler wind lidars, and microwave radiometers are starting to flow in real time to forecasting centers in Europe. The high-resolution (1 km) forecasting models that are now run operationally by many European national weather services promise to provide increasingly accurate high-resolution forecasts of impending hazardous weather, ranging

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Luis Samaniego, Stephan Thober, Niko Wanders, Ming Pan, Oldrich Rakovec, Justin Sheffield, Eric F. Wood, Christel Prudhomme, Gwyn Rees, Helen Houghton-Carr, Matthew Fry, Katie Smith, Glenn Watts, Hege Hisdal, Teodoro Estrela, Carlo Buontempo, Andreas Marx, and Rohini Kumar

A high-resolution multimodel ensemble of state-of-the-art climate and hydrological models has been developed to deliver hydrometeorological change metrics codesigned with key water sector stakeholders in Europe. Existing water-oriented decision-support systems are either designed as early warning systems to provide forecasts of hydrological floods and droughts, or as monitoring platforms aiming to provide information on the current state of variables of interest such as streamflow or soil

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Olga Zolina, Clemens Simmer, Alice Kapala, Pavel Shabanov, Paul Becker, Hermann Mächel, Sergey Gulev, and Pavel Groisman

High-quality quantitative information about precipitation characteristics in Europe, including extremes, is crucial for estimating and modeling observed climate variability and trends in European hydroclimate and floods. The recent flood in early June 2013 over Southern and Southeastern Germany exceeded the water levels of the already record-breaking flood of August 2002. This event was followed by very localized and extremely heavy precipitation events in the latter half of June in Western

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