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G. Strandberg and E. Kjellström

climate models (RCMs) enables studies of local effects. RCMs improve the representation of regional-scale climate features (e.g., Rummukainen 2010 ). For future climates, the effects of afforestation have been studied with RCMs in Europe (e.g., Wramneby et al. 2010 ; Gálos et al. 2012 ), North America (e.g., Alexandru and Sushama 2016 ), Africa (e.g., Wu et al. 2016 ), and South America (e.g., Wu et al. 2017 ). The main finding is that the climate mitigation benefits of afforestation (due to CO

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Pierre Valty, Olivier de Viron, Isabelle Panet, and Xavier Collilieux

1. Introduction Monitoring and modeling Earth’s water cycle is a key scientific issue. On land, knowing how water resources evolve and how they respond and interact with the climate variations has a strong societal impact in the context of global change. In particular, the knowledge of the interannual dynamics of water mass redistributions at the regional scale is mandatory to estimate the effects of the global change on the water cycle. At this time scale, in Europe, the zonal atmospheric

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K. Dimitriou, G. R. McGregor, P. A. Kassomenos, and A. K. Paschalidou

been found to vary, depending on the location, the lifestyle and habits of the population, and quality of the housing, among a range of confounding factors ( Eurowinter Group 1997 ; Donaldson and Keatinge 2003 ; Kovats and Kosatsky 2009 ). Added to this is the observation that for a number of regions, such as northern Europe, there has been a progressive reduction in temperature-related deaths from the beginning of the twentieth century until the present ( Carson et al. 2006 ; Astrom et al. 2013

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Franz X. Faust, Cristóbal Gnecco, Hermann Mannstein, and Jörg Stamm

due to two main factors: (a) the selection of highly productive cultigens and (b) the development of improved techniques such as irrigation, terraces, and raised fields. The majority of the cultivators in the Americas settled in natural woodland habitats and cleared large areas for their fields, which were abandoned because of the demographic collapse brought about by the European conquest. The regrowing forest provided a prominent sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide that must have also

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Richard R. Heim Jr. and Michael J. Brewer

problem on a continental and global scale (see Table 1 for the distinction between the Global Drought Monitor, Global Drought Monitor Portal, Global Drought Information System, and Global Drought Early Warning System). Table 1. Acronyms used in this paper. Every continent has regions and climates that are susceptible to drought, including semiarid areas that are especially vulnerable to drought. In North America and Europe today, drought impacts are largely economic ( Markandya 2010 ). However, in

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Weiyue Zhang, Zhongfeng Xu, and Weidong Guo

as Europe and North America, LULCC can result in a surface temperature cooling of 1° to 2°C primarily because of the increased land surface albedo ( Brovkin et al. 1999 ; Betts et al. 2007 ; Oleson et al. 2004 ; Bala et al. 2007 ; Davin and de Noblet-Ducoudré 2010 ; de Noblet-Ducoudré et al. 2012 ). Lawrence and Chase (2010) found that land-cover change results in a widespread regional warming and drying of the near-surface atmosphere but has a limited global influence on near

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Peter K. Snyder

. ( Sud et al. 1996 ) suggested that tropical deforestation could lead to changes in the meridional circulation of the Southern Hemisphere. More recently, Gedney and Valdes ( Gedney and Valdes 2000 ) linked deforestation in Amazonia to possible changes in winter rainfall over the northeast Atlantic and western Europe. Using an AGCM, they concluded that anomalous Rossby wave propagation out of the tropics and a reduction in the descending branch of the Hadley cell were primarily responsible for the

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Michael E. Mann, Ed Gille, Jonathan Overpeck, Wendy Gross, Raymond S. Bradley, Frank T. Keimig, and Malcolm K. Hughes

instrumental data, including those available on a large-scale basis during the latter half of the nineteenth century (see Figure 4 ), and sparser data available in certain regions (e.g., Europe and North America) several centuries back in time. The reader is referred to Mann et al. ( Mann et al., 1998 ) for details of these experiments. We provide here the actual statistical results from the verification experiments for the annual mean, cold season, and warm season. (The results are available online

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Sheldon Drobot, James Maslanik, Ute Christina Herzfeld, Charles Fowler, and Wanli Wu

. 1996 ), 15-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analyses (ERA-15; Gibson et al. 1997 ), and the Climatic Research Unit/University of East Anglia CRUTEM2v (CRU; Jones et al. 2001 ) datasets were analyzed. The results indicated that temperature differences between the NCEP1 and CRU datasets were largest in winter and smallest in summer, with NCEP1 being warmer over North America; comparisons for NCEP1 and ERA-15 were similar, whereas ERA-15 was noticeably warmer than CRU

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Sébastien Gervois, Nathalie de Noblet-Ducoudré, Nicolas Viovy, Philippe Ciais, Nadine Brisson, Bernard Seguin, and Alain Perrier

croplands or grasslands (e.g., Nobre et al. 1991 ; Xue and Shukla 1993 ; Polcher et al. 1996 ). These numerical experiments showed large regional impacts on the water cycle, including local inflow of atmospheric water vapor. More recently, modelers focused on the temperate zone. For instance, Betts ( Betts 1999 ) simulated cooler European summers as a result of increased surface albedo, while Zhao et al. ( Zhao et al. 2001 ) obtained warmer summers due to decreased evapotranspiration. Over western

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