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B. Bisselink and A. J. Dolman

simple one-dimensional recycling model derived by Budyko (1974) and on the atmospheric moisture balance in a region ( Brubaker et al. 1993 ; Eltahir and Bras 1994 ; Schär et al. 1999 ; Trenberth 1999 ; Bosilovich and Schubert 2001 ). Brubaker et al. (1993) extended Budyko’s model into two dimensions, and Trenberth (1999) and Schär et al. (1999) used this model for their studies of global recycling and for the analysis of recycling in Europe. Eltahir and Bras (1994) developed a bulk

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C. Kidd, P. Bauer, J. Turk, G. J. Huffman, R. Joyce, K.-L. Hsu, and D. Braithwaite

uncertainties, can outperform products constructed from individual observation types ( Ebert et al. 2007 ; Lu et al. 2010 ). This paper addresses the performance of satellite precipitation products and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) NWP model estimates over northwest Europe at the higher midlatitudes. The region covered by this study extends from 30° to 60°N, 20°W to 20°E encompassing a range of climatological zones from maritime to continental and from semiarid to

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M. F. P. Bierkens and L. P. H. van Beek

components of the climate system, such as sea surface temperature (SST) and related large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns ( Cullen et al. 2002 ; Peterson et al. 2002 ; Tootle et al. 2005 ). In Europe, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is considered to be the strongest driver of interyear climate variability ( Hurrell and van Loon 1997 ; Appenzeller et al. 1998 ) and the main factor explaining anomalies in winter precipitation and temperature ( Hurrell 1995 ). Owing to the connection between

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Olga Zolina, Clemens Simmer, Konstantin Belyaev, Alice Kapala, and Sergey Gulev

statistical significance problems owing to the low occurrence of such events. As a consequence, continental-scale estimates of the variability and trends in heavy precipitation might generally agree qualitatively but may exhibit significant quantitative differences. For the European continent, most results hint at a growing intensity of heavy precipitation over the last five decades. Klein Tank and Können (2003 , hereafter KTK03) reported primarily positive linear trends in extreme precipitation

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Christel Prudhomme, Simon Parry, Jamie Hannaford, Douglas B. Clark, Stefan Hagemann, and Frank Voss

1. Introduction and background There is growing evidence that the hydrological cycle is intensifying (e.g., Huntington 2006 ; Stott et al. 2010 ) as a result of anthropogenically forced climatic change. Generally speaking, at regional to continental scales, two contrasting approaches are used to examine the influence of climate change on the hydrological cycle: through analysis of historical data, to detect emerging trends (e.g., in Europe by Stahl et al. 2010 , in North America by Douglas

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M. Ionita, M. Dima, G. Lohmann, P. Scholz, and N. Rimbu

1. Introduction After several days of heavy rainfall, ongoing flooding in central Europe began in late May 2013. It primarily affected the southern and the eastern parts of Germany and western regions of the Czech Republic ( Munich RE 2013 ). The flood crest then progressed down the Elbe and Danube drainage basins and tributaries, leading to high water levels along their banks. This resulted in an overall loss of more than EUR 12 billion and an insured loss in the region of more than EUR 3

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Anne Springer, Jürgen Kusche, Kerstin Hartung, Christan Ohlwein, and Laurent Longuevergne

is the closure of the water budget at river basin scale, in order to assess the realism of the representation of the P and E fluxes in NWP models. In particular, high-resolution output fields from the Consortium for Small-Scale Modelling, German version (COSMO-DE) and European version (COSMO-EU), which are analysis runs of the nonhydrostatic regional atmospheric COSMO model developed by the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD), are evaluated and compared to global models and observation

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Lukas Gudmundsson, Lena M. Tallaksen, Kerstin Stahl, Douglas B. Clark, Egon Dumont, Stefan Hagemann, Nathalie Bertrand, Dieter Gerten, Jens Heinke, Naota Hanasaki, Frank Voss, and Sujan Koirala

Europe based on daily data. They concluded that the model captured average annual low and high flows reasonably well, but had a tendency to overestimate the return periods of extreme events. Similarly, Hirabayashi et al. (2008) compared the estimated return periods of seven disastrous floods around the globe to the results from a global offline simulation with daily resolution and concluded that the return period of the simulated events compared reasonably well to the observed values. However

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Christoph Marty, Anna-Maria Tilg, and Tobias Jonas

periods considered ( Skaugen et al. 2012 ). In Japan, SWE has only been measured since the beginning of the 1990s. Yamaguchi et al. (2011) did not observe a clear trend of the maximum of SWE but high interannual variations. In the Alps our knowledge of SWE changes is still strongly limited by the fact that measurements are sparse and data are hard to obtain from the different European countries. Rohrer et al. (1994) found no trend for SWE in the Swiss Alps for the period 1975–92. Bocchiola and

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Philippe Lucas-Picher, Fredrik Boberg, Jens H. Christensen, and Peter Berg

better represents the 2002 Elbe River flood when using a method with reinitializations, compared to a standard continuous simulation. Until now, in the RCM community, the method with frequent reinitializations has been limited to short simulations and has not been employed in a multiyear framework to downscale a full reanalysis, which is specifically designed for the needs of impact studies. A regional reanalysis was requested in the European Union (EU) Sixth Framework Programme (FP6) project Water

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