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Thomas Jung and Peter B. Rhines

the study of Atlantic cyclogenesis in several directions. Model resolution will be carried from T L 95 to T L 799 (grid resolutions of roughly 210 to 25 km) using the global European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) forecast model system. Forty-year ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA-40) data (roughly equivalent to T L 159 resolution) will be compared with model simulations, looking at the life cycle of cyclone development associated with strong pressure-drag events. Vertical structure of the

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O. Martius, C. Schwierz, and H. C. Davies

analyses are discussed and summarized. 2. Method This study makes use of a climatology of PV streamers. The climatology has been calculated by applying the streamer detection routine of Wernli and Sprenger (2007) to the 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-40) dataset (1958–2002; Uppala et al. 2005 ). The ERA-40 fields are interpolated to a spatial resolution of 1° × 1° and have a temporal resolution of 6 h. The PV streamer routine objectively detects

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Robert X. Black and Brent A. McDaniel

warming event in September). Our analysis makes no a priori assumptions regarding the structural evolution of the organized response as the data are not projected upon predetermined modes of variability (such as the SAM). In fact, the distinctions between SFW-associated variability and SAM structures represent a key result of the paper. 2. Data and methods The basic input data for our study are the 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-40) daily average

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I. G. Watterson

of U is typical of midtropospheric winds. The full-year means of zonal-mean U over southern latitudes are shown in Fig. 1 . The model winds closely match the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA) result also shown, including both a jet peak around 50°S and an extended northern flank. The data used are from the whole years 1958–2001 from the ERA-40 project described by Kållberg et al. (2004) , including levels through 30 hPa. Within the troposphere

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