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Yann Friocourt, Sybren Drijfhout, and Bruno Blanke

1. Introduction The northeastern Atlantic Ocean off western Europe is a relatively sluggish area where the mean circulation is generally dominated by the mesoscale activity. Typical current velocities seldom exceed a few centimeters per second, except in the immediate vicinity of the continental slope where they locally can reach up to 30 cm −1 . Indeed, observations carried out along the continental margin in the Bay of Biscay and along the Iberian Peninsula report a baroclinic system of slope

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David A. Williams, David M. Schultz, Kevin J. Horsburgh, and Chris W. Hughes

; Olabarrieta et al. 2017 ; Dusek et al. 2019 ). In these places, a moderately large meteotsunami (~1 m) is expected once every few years. The biggest similarity between these regions is that they contain a large (~10 5 km 2 ) region of shallow, gently sloping bathymetry. However, a similarly large (6 × 10 5 km 2 ) region that is known for meteotsunamis has not been represented by a regional climatology—the northwest European continental shelf ( Fig. 1 ). Table 1. Choices made when producing

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Yann Friocourt, Bruno Blanke, Sybren Drijfhout, and Sabrina Speich

1. Introduction Although the circulation in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean is weak and largely dominated by mesoscale fluctuations, observations report the existence of a baroclinic system of slope currents along the west European margin with velocities of up to 20 cm s −1 (e.g., Daniault et al. 1994 ; Huthnance et al. 2002 ; Pingree and Le Cann 1989 ; Pingree et al. 1999 ). In a companion paper, Friocourt et al. (2008 , hereafter Part I ) investigated the dynamics of the steady

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Robert R. Dickson, Paul A. Gurbutt, and V. Narayana Pillai

Mexico. U.S. Fish Wild. Serv. Bur. Comm. Fish., Circ. 300, 33 pp.Smith, N. P., 1977: Hydrography Project. Environmental studies, South Texas outer continental shelf, biology and chemistry, R. D. Groover,' Ed., pp. 3-1 to 3-82. University of Texas Final Report to the Bureau of Land Management, Contract AA550-CT6-17.Satellite Evidence of Enhanced Upwelling Along the European Continental Slope ROBERT R. DICKSON AND PAUL A. GURBUTTMinistry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food

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A. M. Davies

VOLUME 16 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY MAY 1986A Three-Dimensional Model of the Northwest European Continental Shelf, with Application to the M4 TideA. M. DAVIESInstitute of Oceanographic Sciences, Bidston Observatory, Birkenhead, Merseyside L43 7RA, England(Manuscript received 3 February 1982, in final form 29 April 1985)ABSTRACT The solution of the fully nonlinear three

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David A Williams, David M Schultz, Kevin J Horsburgh, and Chris W Hughes

Abstract

Meteotsunamis are shallow-water waves that, despite often being small (~ 0.3 m), can cause damage, injuries and fatalities due to relatively strong currents (> 1 m s−1). Previous case studies, modelling and localised climatologies have indicated that dangerous meteotsunamis can occur across northwest Europe. Using 71 tide gauges across northwest Europe between 2010–2017, a regional climatology was made to understand the typical sizes, times and atmospheric systems that generate meteotsunamis. A total of 349 meteotsunamis (54.0 meteotsunamis per year) were identified with 0.27–0.40 m median wave heights. The largest waves (~ 1 m high) were measured in France and the Republic of Ireland. Most meteotsunamis were identified in winter (43–59%), and the fewest identified meteotsunamis occurred in either spring or summer (0–15%). There was a weak diurnal signal, with most meteotsunami identifications between 1200–1859 UTC (30%) and fewest between 0000–0659 UTC (23%). Radar-derived precipitation was used to identify and classify the morphologies of mesoscale precipitating weather systems occurring within 6 h of each meteotsunami. Most mesoscale atmospheric systems were quasi-linear systems (46%) or open-cellular convection (33%), with some non-linear clusters (17%) and a few isolated cells (4%). These systems occurred under westerly geostrophic flow, with Proudman resonance possible in 43 out of 45 selected meteotsunamis. Because most meteotsunamis occur on cold winter days, with precipitation, and in large tides, wintertime meteotsunamis may be missed by eyewitnesses, helping to explain why previous observationally-based case studies of meteotsunamis are documented predominantly in summer.

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Hans Burchard, Götz Flöser, Joanna V. Staneva, Thomas H. Badewien, and Rolf Riethmüller

. Geol. , 26 , 69 – 90 . Andersen , T. , and M. Pejrup , 2001 : Suspended sediment transport on a temperate, microtidal mudflat, the Danish Wadden Sea. Mar. Geol. , 173 , 69 – 85 . Andersen , T. , M. Pejrup , O. Mikkelsen , and A. Møller , 2000 : Deposition and mixing depths on some European intertidal mudflats based on 210 Pb and 137 Cs activities. Cont. Shelf Res. , 20 , 1569 – 1591 . Banas , N. S. , and B. M. Hickey , 2005 : Mapping exchange and residence time

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Ana M. Mancho, Emilio Hernández-García, Des Small, Stephen Wiggins, and Vicente Fernández

at a 2750-m depth and is not filtered or smoothed. Horizontal viscosity and diffusivity values are constant and equal to 10 m 2 s −1 . For the vertical viscosity and diffusivity, a formulation based on the Richardson number that was developed in Pacanowski and Philander (1981) is used, with background values set at near-molecular values (10 −6 and 2 × 10 −7 m 2 s −1 , respectively). We use monthly mean wind stress reanalyzed from 10-m wind output from the European Centre for Medium

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Richard D. Ray

Observatory) and the University of Hawaii Sea Level Center. The Vigo data were originally contributed by the Instituto Español de Oceanografía, Madrid, Spain. REFERENCES Cartwright , D. E. , 1975 : A subharmonic lunar tide in the seas off Western Europe. Nature , 257 , 277 – 280 . Cartwright , D. E. , 1976 : Anomalous M 1 tide at Lagos. Nature , 263 , 217 – 218 . Cartwright , D. E. , and R. J. Tayler , 1971 : New computations of the tide-generating potential. Geophys. J. Roy. Astron

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Fabrice Ardhuin, Aron Roland, Franck Dumas, Anne-Claire Bennis, Alexei Sentchev, Philippe Forget, Judith Wolf, Françoise Girard, Pedro Osuna, and Michel Benoit

currents. For comparison purposes we will only retain the global-steepness parameterization of Bidlot et al. (2005) , because it is used operationally at European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) for wave forecasting, and the saturation-based parameterization of Ardhuin et al. (2010) , used operationnally at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) since May 2012. 3. Waves against strong tidal jets In the ocean, currents are never uniform in the cross-stream direction

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