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H. Leijnse, R. Uijlenhoet, C. Z. van de Beek, A. Overeem, T. Otto, C. M. H. Unal, Y. Dufournet, H. W. J. Russchenberg, J. Figueras i Ventura, H. Klein Baltink, and I. Holleman

. 10.1175/1520-0426(2002)019<0602:TDVDAD>2.0.CO;2 Kulmala, M. , and Coauthors , 2009 : Introduction: European Integrated Project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality interactions (EUCAARI)—Integrating aerosol research from nano to global scales. Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 9 , 2825 – 2841 . 10.5194/acp-9-2825-2009 Leijnse, H. , Uijlenhoet R. , and Stricker J. N. M. , 2008 : Microwave link rainfall estimation: Effects of link length and frequency, temporal sampling, power resolution, and

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Dusanka Zupanski, Sara Q. Zhang, Milija Zupanski, Arthur Y. Hou, and Samson H. Cheung

positive data impact to have improved the accuracy of global precipitation estimates ( Hou and Zhang 2007 ). NCEP has introduced rain retrievals into the operational global data assimilation system (e.g., Treadon et al. 2002 ). Other major meteorological centers, such as the Met Office, the Japan Meteorological Administration (JMA), and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) have also been assimilating precipitation observations, precipitation-affected microwave radiances, and

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F. M. Ralph, T. Coleman, P. J. Neiman, R. J. Zamora, and M. D. Dettinger

and at least 2000 km long. Studies in Europe ( Stohl et al. 2008 ; Lavers et al. 2011 ) and South America ( Viale and Nuñez 2011 ) have come to similar conclusions for the west coasts of these other continents as well, and Moore et al. (2012) has documented the role of an AR in major flooding in the southeast United States. Guan et al. (2010) and Dettinger et al. (2011) documented the major roles that ARs also play in California’s water supply, providing from 25% to 50% of the entire water

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Sandra E. Yuter, David A. Stark, Justin A. Crouch, M. Jordan Payne, and Brian A. Colle

vertically pointing radar data from the European Alps and Oregon Cascades has suggested that turbulence within a layer of strong shear along the windward slope could enhance precipitation growth and fallout ( Houze and Medina 2005 ). Kirshbaum and Durran (2005) found that both local terrain peaks and low-amplitude random topographic roughness were effective at organizing and fixing the location of orographic rainbands. Intensive analysis of observations and modeling studies from the Mesoscale Alpine

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Timothy J. Lang, Steven A. Rutledge, and Robert Cifelli

. Rev. , 136 , 4962 – 4979 . 10.1175/2008MWR2397.1 Rutledge, S. A. , Williams E. R. , and Keenan T. D. , 1992 : The Down Upper Doppler and Electricity Experiment (DUNDEE): Overview and preliminary results. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 73 , 3 – 16 . 10.1175/1520-0477(1992)073<0003:TDUDAE>2.0.CO;2 Rutledge, S. A. , Cifelli R. , Lang T. , and Nesbitt S. W. , 2009 : Contrasting tropical rainfall regimes using TRMM and ground-based polarimetric radar. European Geosciences Union

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R. Uijlenhoet, J.-M. Cohard, and M. Gosset

group and is currently funded by a large number of agencies, especially from France, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Africa. It has been the beneficiary of a major financial contribution from the European Community’s Sixth Framework Research Programme. Detailed information on scientific coordination and funding is available on the AMMA International web site ( http://www.amma-international.org ). APPENDIX k–R Relations from Z – R Relations The radar reflectivity factor Z (mm 6 m −3

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F. M. Ralph, E. Sukovich, D. Reynolds, M. Dettinger, S. Weagle, W. Clark, and P. J. Neiman

Forecast System (GFS), North American Mesoscale model (NAM), European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), Met Office (UKMO), and the Meteorological Service of Canada. The HPC gridded-point QPF values are forwarded to the NWS RFCs, where the Hydrometeorological Analysis and Support (HAS) meteorologist reviews the RFC regional gridded-point values for a specified number of sites throughout the RFC region and modifies these points when appropriate to the local terrain, regional climate, and

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James A. Smith, Gabriele Villarini, and Mary Lynn Baeck

. 10.1175/2010MWR3315.1 Villarini, G. , Smith J. A. , Baeck M. L. , and Krajewski W. F. , 2011 : Examining regional flood frequency in the midwest U.S. J. Amer. Water Resour. Assoc. , in press . Vitolo, R. , Stephenson D. B. , Cook I. M. , and Mitchell-Wallace K. , 2009 : Serial clustering of intense European storms. Meteor. Z. , 18 , 411 – 424 . 10.1127/0941-2948/2009/0393 Waylen, P. , 1991 : Modeling the effects of tropical cyclones on flooding in the Santa Fe River

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Youcun Qi, Jian Zhang, Brian Kaney, Carrie Langston, and Kenneth Howard

out by Panziera and Germann (2010) through a study of 106 days of rainfall in the southern part of the European Alps, the upstream wind velocity has the largest impact on the frequency and intensity of the precipitation in the mountainous area, and the direction of the wind determines the spatial distribution and intensity of the precipitation. The airmass stability also determines the intensity of the precipitation, and usually unstable conditions cause more precipitation over a mountainous

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