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Huijun Wang and Ke Fan

have been undertaken in Europe and the United States, respectively, namely the Prediction of Climate Variations on Seasonal to Interannual Timescales (PROVOST) project and the Dynamical Seasonal Prediction (DSP; Palmer and Shukla 2000 ), to validate the skill of multimodel ensemble predictions. The results of these projects showed the large spatial differences of the skill, as well as the considerable intermodel variability of the SST-forced seasonal-mean signal, plus seasonal-mean “noise

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Jianhua Sun and Sixiong Zhao

understand the synoptic background and weather conditions for freezing precipitation events. The previous studies have mainly focused on various regions in North America and Europe, while only very limited number of studies were conducted in China. The investigations in the past with respect to the prediction of freezing precipitation or precipitation types generally fall into the following three categories: (a) Statistical models [e.g., critical thresholds, regression analysis, model output

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Rong-Hua Zhang and Antonio J. Busalacchi

responses to TIW-induced SST forcing are underestimated by about a factor of 2 as indicated by the slopes. Nevertheless, the simulation skill from this empirical model is still comparable to that represented in the high horizontal resolution European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECWMF) operational model (e.g., Chelton et al. 2005 ). Similarly, the binned scatterplots of the divergence and curl perturbations are illustrated in Fig. 14b . Again, the estimated slopes are about half of those

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