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Young-Kwon Lim, Siegfried D. Schubert, Oreste Reale, Myong-In Lee, Andrea M. Molod, and Max J. Suarez

) that many previous studies have not emphasized. The analysis of the runs is geared to better understanding the atmospheric response determining the TC activity over the North Atlantic with a particular focus on the atmospheric instability over the TC genesis region, the thermodynamic and radiative balance, the low-level fluxes and circulation, and the mean climate state response. The organization of the paper is as follows. Section 2 describes the GEOS-5 model and the experimental design. The

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Yohei Yamada and Masaki Satoh

model parameters, in spite of the upper cloud spread in the tropics. They argued by using a simple mechanistic model that the reduction of the convective mass flux resulting from global warming decreases the IWP. Such a decrease in IWP is also different from the response analyzed for the relatively coarse-resolution climate models ( Zelinka et al. 2012b ). It is unknown whether these differences result from the different treatments of convective clouds (i.e., explicit versus parameterized). The

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Gabriele Villarini, David A. Lavers, Enrico Scoccimarro, Ming Zhao, Michael F. Wehner, Gabriel A. Vecchi, Thomas R. Knutson, and Kevin A. Reed

the Hadley Centre Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature dataset (HadISST); Rayner et al. 2003 ]. The GCM run by CMCC builds on ECHAM5 ( Roeckner et al. 2003 ) with the same resolution employed in the CMCC model fully coupled model ( Scoccimarro et al. 2011 ): a spectral T159 horizontal resolution, corresponding to a Gaussian grid of about 0.75° × 0.75°, and a vertical resolution with 31 hybrid sigma-pressure levels with top at 10 hPa. The convection parameterization is based on the mass flux

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Enrico Scoccimarro, Silvio Gualdi, Gabriele Villarini, Gabriel A. Vecchi, Ming Zhao, Kevin Walsh, and Antonio Navarra

Convection Scheme (UWShCu) ( Bretherton et al. 2004 ; Zhao et al. 2009 ). The choice of a less intrusive convection scheme is motivated by a desire to allow the large-scale resolved-scale convection to do much of the work. The CMCC model is ECHAM5 ( Roeckner et al. 2003 ) implemented with a T159 horizontal resolution, corresponding to a Gaussian grid of about 0.758° × 0.758° with 31 hybrid sigma-pressure levels with top at 10 hPa. The parameterization of convection is based on the mass flux concept

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Michael Wehner, Prabhat, Kevin A. Reed, Dáithí Stone, William D. Collins, and Julio Bacmeister

mass flux, leading to a decrease in tropical storm frequency, and that a uniform increase in SST increases atmospheric stability together with an additional decrease in the upward mass flux, also leading to a decrease in tropical storm frequency. This paper explores in detail the tropical storm statistics of a single model, the Community Atmospheric Model version 5.1 (CAM5.1), at two different horizontal resolutions in the four U.S. CLIVAR HWG idealized configurations and provides insight into the

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Wei Mei, Shang-Ping Xie, and Ming Zhao

the model output described below, only the observed track data between 1979 and 2008 are used. b. Simulated TC tracks We use output from a 25-km-resolution version of the High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM) to study the variability of TC activity in response to observed SSTs. We note that Emanuel and Sobel (2013) recently suggested that climate model simulations forced only with observed SSTs may not produce correct surface fluxes and correct surface wind speeds and may thereby influence

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Christina M. Patricola, R. Saravanan, and Ping Chang

in tropical Atlantic variability . J. Climate , 15 , 3280 – 3290 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015<3280:ADSOTR>2.0.CO;2 . DeMaria , M. , J.-J. Baik , and J. Kaplan , 1993 : Upper-level eddy angular momentum flux and tropical cyclone intensity change . J. Atmos. Sci. , 50 , 1133 – 1147 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1993)050<1133:ULEAMF>2.0.CO;2 . Dunstone , N. J. , D. M. Smith , B. B. B. Booth , L. Hermanson , and R. Eade , 2013 : Anthropogenic aerosol forcing of Atlantic

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Suzana J. Camargo, Michael K. Tippett, Adam H. Sobel, Gabriel A. Vecchi, and Ming Zhao

than in the simulated NTC. Fig . 13. Box plot of the difference in NTC per year (Southern Hemisphere July–June season) in future scenarios normalized by the mean NTC per hemisphere in the climatological simulation in the (a) Southern and (b) Northern Hemisphere. a. Vertical velocity and convective precipitation Held and Zhao (2011) argued that changes in genesis in HiRAM in different future scenarios followed changes in the mean vertical motion, reflecting changes in convective mass fluxes. Zhao

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