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D. Marks, A. Winstral, G. Flerchinger, M. Reba, J. Pomeroy, T. Link, and K. Elder

the snow cover energy and mass balance (e.g., Anderson 1976 ; Male and Granger 1981 ; Marks et al. 1992 ; Marks and Dozier 1992 ; Harding and Pomeroy 1996 ; Marsh and Pomeroy 1996 ; Pomeroy et al. 1998 ; Hedstrom and Pomeroy 1998 ; Marks et al. 1998 ; Luce et al. 1998 , 1999 ; Tarboton et al. 2000 ; Marks and Winstral 2001 ; Tribbeck et al. 2004 ; Pomeroy et al. 2002 , 2003 ; Essery et al. 1998 ). All these studies show that radiation and turbulent fluxes dominate the snow cover

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Nick Rutter, Don Cline, and Long Li

), and 2) the Utah Energy Balance Model (UEB; Tarboton and Luce 1996 ). Table 1 illustrates that both models have been extensively evaluated in a wide range of hydroclimatological conditions in terrestrial and marine environments. The NSM exploits the strengths of these models, notably the physical algorithms used by SNTHERM to solve all soil–snow–atmosphere mass and energy fluxes, other than the solution of snow surface temperature, which follows conventions of the UEB model. Euler predictor

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Susan Frankenstein, Anne Sawyer, and Julie Koeberle

meteorological data combined with initial snowpack depth, density, and stratigraphy to predict snowpack energy and mass fluxes. Multiple studies have demonstrated that SNTHERM successfully simulates snowpack mass and energy exchanges at diverse locations and under varying conditions, both as a stand-alone model and when coupled with models that can account for the presence of vegetation ( Davis et al. 1997 ; Hardy et al. 1997a , b ; Hardy et al. 1998 ; Koivusalo and Heikinheimo 1999 ; e.g., Colee 2000

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Kelly Elder, Angus Goodbody, Don Cline, Paul Houser, Glen E. Liston, Larry Mahrt, and Nick Rutter

received an initial quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) procedure to remove compromised data. Instrument specifications are available by contacting the provider listed on the data archive Web site. c. North Park eddy covariance system Two eddy covariance measurements programs were completed. The first program, Flux Over Snow Surfaces, phase I (FLOSS), was completed from 1 December 2001 to 27 March 2002 using an instrumented 20-m scaffold tower. The second program, FLOSS, phase 2 (FLOSS II), was

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Janet Hardy, Robert Davis, Yeohoon Koh, Don Cline, Kelly Elder, Richard Armstrong, Hans-Peter Marshall, Thomas Painter, Gilles Castres Saint-Martin, Roger DeRoo, Kamal Sarabandi, Tobias Graf, Toshio Koike, and Kyle McDonald

, two in discontinuous canopy, and one approximately 500 m west of the LSOS) and an eddy covariance (EC) system in 2003 ( Marks et al. 2008 ). The measured meteorological data included solar and longwave downward radiation, snow, soil and air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, precipitation, soil heat flux, and soil moisture. Arrays of ten solar and two longwave radiometers sampled energy beneath the uniform coniferous canopy and the discontinuous canopy. The U.S. Forest

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Rafał Wójcik, Konstantinos Andreadis, Marco Tedesco, Eric Wood, Tara Troy, and Dennis Lettenmeier

layer moisture. Moisture and energy fluxes are computed separately for each vegetation class and elevation band within each grid cell and then area-weighted and summed over the grid cell, thus allowing the model to account for subgrid variability in topography, land cover, soil moisture, and precipitation. Streamflow is then simulated by routing subsurface and surface runoff using the method of Lohmann et al. (1998) . Snow accumulation and ablation processes are simulated using a two-layer energy

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Don Cline, Simon Yueh, Bruce Chapman, Boba Stankov, Al Gasiewski, Dallas Masters, Kelly Elder, Richard Kelly, Thomas H. Painter, Steve Miller, Steve Katzberg, and Larry Mahrt

(0.1 m). Observations were made in the ISAs, the local scale observation site (LSOS), and at a site adjacent to the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) flux tower (close to the southeast corner of the Potter Creek ISA; Fig. 1 ; Table 2 ). Data were collected on 8–9 April (snow-covered sites) and 18–19 September 2003 (snow-free sites). Data are available for all sites except for snow depth contours at the site adjacent to the NCAR flux tower. Elevation data were acquired from

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Glen E. Liston, Daniel L. Birkenheuer, Christopher A. Hiemstra, Donald W. Cline, and Kelly Elder

motions, any vertical motion field would typically be destroyed by the model in the first one or two time steps. The CLPX RUC20 analyses archive spans the period 1 October 2002 through 31 September 2003 at an hourly time increment. The archive includes the three-dimensional and surface variables listed in Table 2 . Like the LAPS data, the RUC20 data are available for a wide range of applications, including studies of large-scale weather patterns and timing, as well as surface energy- and moisture-flux

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Glen E. Liston and Christopher A. Hiemstra

–thaw conditions; Zhang 2005 ). In contrast, realistic SWE distributions throughout the winter are required for SWE distribution-dependent winter surface energy flux calculations. As an extreme example, consider the case in which only end-of-winter (i.e., before spring melt) SWE distribution observations are available but realistic SWE distributions for each day throughout the winter snow season are required for some land surface climate interaction application. In this case, the methodology presented herein

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Richard Essery, Peter Bunting, Aled Rowlands, Nick Rutter, Janet Hardy, Rae Melloh, Tim Link, Danny Marks, and John Pomeroy

1. Introduction Forest canopies strongly modify radiative fluxes reaching the underlying surface. This has important implications for hydrological and ecological processes, such as snowmelt and succession, in forested environments ( Pomeroy and Dion 1996 ; Battaglia et al. 2002 ; Hardy et al. 2004 ). Conversely, radiation reflected and emitted from trees complicates the retrieval of forest snow properties by remote sensing ( Chang et al. 1996 ; Klein et al. 1998 ). Land surface models and

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